FEATURED ARTICLES

Gardens of Islam
The inhabitants of the early Islamic world were, to a degree that is difficult for us to comprehend, enchanted by greenery.
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Al-Khawarizmi
Algebra, algorithm, quadratic equation, sine function... just some of the terms which would not be known to us but for Al-Khawarizmi. An astronomer, geographer and founder of several branches and...
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Malika I: Khayzuran & Zubayda
From Indonesia to Pakistan, Kyrgyzstan to Nigeria, Senegal to Turkey, it is not particularly rare in our own times for women in Muslim-majority countries to be appointed and elected to high offices—...
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Ingenious Clocks from Muslim Civilisation that Defied the Middle Ages
TIME TELLING MACHINES: Revealing marvellous mechanical and water-powered clocks from early Muslim Civilisation. These sophisticated devices that defied the Middle Ages.
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Our Arabic Heritage in the Celestial Vault
In Arabic culture, as in other civilisations, the cultural dimension of the history of astronomy appears in part in the meanings and origins of star and constellation names. This nomenclature was...
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Aleppo Citadel: Glimpses of the Past
The Citadel of Aleppo is one of the oldest monuments in the world. It is the most famous historic architectural site in Syria and is built on top of a huge, partially artificial mound rising 50m...
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The Fate of Manuscripts in Iraq and Elsewhere
In this well informed article, Dr Geoffrey Roper, an expert in the field, outlines an impressive portrait of the dangers and threats encountered by the national heritage of Iraq due to the dramatic...
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Obesity: 1000 years ago
I enjoyed Richard Barnett's Historical Keywords piece on obesity (May 28, p 1843).[1] More clarification is needed regarding his statement that “obesity first appears in a medical context in Thomas...
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Medical Books on Healthy Living from Muslim Civilisation
If you think medical advice on healthy living - good nutrients, exercise and stress free existence is a modern medical practice, you might want to think again and join us to discover 5 medical books...
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Amazing Mechanical Devices from Muslim Civilisation
Fully automated environmentally friendly water raising devices, pumps, windmills and more! Discover some of the most facinating devices from the Golden Age of Muslim Civilisation that brought...
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The Transfer of Science Between India, Europe and China via Muslim Heritage
[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. The Islamic realms served as a crucible for scientific learning from the...
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Women Dealing with Health during the Ottoman Reign
In the history of Islamic civilization, many hospitals were founded by women, either as wives, daughters or mothers of sultans. All health personnel were male at these hospitals. In the Ottoman...
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Historiography of Science and Medicine: Balancing Scholarship with Public Engagement
In recent years, here at Fez and all over the world, distinguished scholars have rediscovered the immense...
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al-Jahiz's Book of Animals: The transcendent value of disgust
Jeannie Miller, an assistant professor in the department of near & Middle Eastern civilizations, is...
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by Matrakci (<a href="https://emmtahn.wordpress.com/2015/11/02/the-anticipation-of-the-hunt/" target="_blank">Source</a>)
Mega Cities on the Silk Road
Throughout history, trade routes played a central role in the transfer of goods and exchange of ideas between...
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1001 Inventions and FSTC at Manchester Histories Festival
Professor Salim Al-Hassani, President of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) and...
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Malika III: Shajarat Al-Durr
Our third story is that of Shajarat al-Durr, the first woman to sit upon an Egyptian throne since Cleopatra,...
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Figure 2. Ibn al-Haytham's Camera Obscura. The concept of the Camera Obscuraas perceived a thousand years ago by Ibn al-Haytham, who coined the Arabic term. Note the formation of the inverted image through a ray diagram. Illustration of theCamera Obscura in 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World (chief editor Salim Al-Hassani), Manchester: FSTC, 2008, 2nd Edition, ISBN: 9780955242618, p. 29. See also The Year of Ibn al-Haytham (published 15/02/2011) and Ahmed H. Zewail,Micrographia of the twenty-first century: from Camera Obscura to 4D microscopy(The Royal Society, 2010).
Figure 3. 4D electron imaging in real, Fourier and energy spaces. The conceptual design of Caltech’s UEM-2 is presented on the right; a single-electron trajectory is depicted within the UEM. The atomic-scale (femtosecond) temporal resolution characteristic of the apparatus allows for the visualization of dynamical processes in real time. Shown on the left are typical UEM frames of real-space images and diffraction patterns, together with three-dimensional maps of femtosecond-resolved electron-energy-loss spectra (FEELS). For a recent review, seeShorokhov & Zewail (2009).
Figure 4. Microscopy time line, from camera obscura to three-dimensional electron microscopes. 4D ultrafast electron microscopy and diffraction were developed a decade ago. The top inset shows the frontispiece to Hooke’s (1665) Micrographia published by the Royal Society of London. In the frontispiece to Hevelius’s Selenographia (bottom inset), Ibn al-Haytham representsRatione (the use of reason) with his geometrical proof and Galileo represents Sensu (the use of the senses) with his telescope. The two scientists hold the book’s title page between them, suggesting a harmony between the methods (Sabra 2003; Steffens 2006; Zewail & Thomas 2009).

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