FEATURED ARTICLES

Top 5 Mega Cities on the Silk Road
Throughout history, trade routes played a central role in the transfer of goods and exchange of ideas between different parts of the world. The historic Silk Roads, which were a network of trade...
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The Mechanical Water Clock Of Ibn Al-Haytham
The Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) announces their new achievement in the history of Islamic clocks. For the first time, the work of Ibn al-Haytham on the water...
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Ottoman Music Therapy
Music has been used as a mean of therapy through the centuries to counter all kinds of disorders by various peoples. Physicians and musicians in the Ottoman civilization were aware of the music...
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Ode to Nana Asma’u: Voice and Spirit
Nana Asma’u sits in the pantheon, of the great educators of Africa. Taught by female scholars – such as Aisha -  in her family, as well by her more well known father (Usman dan Fodio), uncle (...
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Malika III: Shajarat Al-Durr
Our third story is that of Shajarat al-Durr, the first woman to sit upon an Egyptian throne since Cleopatra, nearly 1,300 years before.
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al-Jahiz's Book of Animals: The transcendent value of disgust
Jeannie Miller, an assistant professor in the department of near & Middle Eastern civilizations, is working on a manuscript examining The Book of Animals by al-Jahiz, a ninth-century Arabic...
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1001 Inventions and FSTC at Manchester Histories Festival
Professor Salim Al-Hassani, President of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) and Chief Editor of “1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilization” and Peter...
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OBITUARY: Ahmed Zewail 1946-2016
A personal encounter. A candle extinguished, but his light will continue to shine: AHMED ZEWAIL 26/02/1946, Egypt - 02/08/2016, USA
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1001 Inventions launches second Istanbul Exhibition
Award-winning exhibition at prestigious Biruni University
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Muslim History and Historians Part 1: For a Better Approach to Muslim History
This article on Muslim history and historians is in three parts, and also includes an extensive reading list to help readers explore the issues discussed here. This first part looks at the way Muslim...
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Muslim History and Historians Part 2: Early and Medieval Muslim Historians
This part deals with the first half of Muslim historians. These include the early leading figures such as Ibn Hisham and al Tabbari. It also covers the historians of the period of the Crusades, North...
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Muslim History and Historians Part 3: Muslim Historians (from the 15th Century down to the 19th)
This part focuses on Muslim historians from the 15th century until the early 19th. It seeks to inform us about the works of famed figures such as Ibn Khaldun, but also lesser ones, yet extremely...
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RECENT ARTICLES

al-Jahiz's Book of Animals: The transcendent value of disgust
Jeannie Miller, an assistant professor in the department of near & Middle Eastern civilizations, is...
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1001 Inventions and FSTC at Manchester Histories Festival
Professor Salim Al-Hassani, President of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) and...
LEARN MORE

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Malika III: Shajarat Al-Durr
Our third story is that of Shajarat al-Durr, the first woman to sit upon an Egyptian throne since Cleopatra,...
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Figure 2. Ibn al-Haytham's Camera Obscura. The concept of the Camera Obscuraas perceived a thousand years ago by Ibn al-Haytham, who coined the Arabic term. Note the formation of the inverted image through a ray diagram. Illustration of theCamera Obscura in 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World (chief editor Salim Al-Hassani), Manchester: FSTC, 2008, 2nd Edition, ISBN: 9780955242618, p. 29. See also The Year of Ibn al-Haytham (published 15/02/2011) and Ahmed H. Zewail,Micrographia of the twenty-first century: from Camera Obscura to 4D microscopy(The Royal Society, 2010).
Figure 3. 4D electron imaging in real, Fourier and energy spaces. The conceptual design of Caltech’s UEM-2 is presented on the right; a single-electron trajectory is depicted within the UEM. The atomic-scale (femtosecond) temporal resolution characteristic of the apparatus allows for the visualization of dynamical processes in real time. Shown on the left are typical UEM frames of real-space images and diffraction patterns, together with three-dimensional maps of femtosecond-resolved electron-energy-loss spectra (FEELS). For a recent review, seeShorokhov & Zewail (2009).
Figure 4. Microscopy time line, from camera obscura to three-dimensional electron microscopes. 4D ultrafast electron microscopy and diffraction were developed a decade ago. The top inset shows the frontispiece to Hooke’s (1665) Micrographia published by the Royal Society of London. In the frontispiece to Hevelius’s Selenographia (bottom inset), Ibn al-Haytham representsRatione (the use of reason) with his geometrical proof and Galileo represents Sensu (the use of the senses) with his telescope. The two scientists hold the book’s title page between them, suggesting a harmony between the methods (Sabra 2003; Steffens 2006; Zewail & Thomas 2009).

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