Figure 1: A detail figure of Divrigi Dar al-Shifa's gate. Ord. Prof. Dr. A. Süheyl Unver Nakishanesi Yorumuyla Divrigi Ulucami ve Sifahanesi Tas Bezemeleri, VIII. Turk Tip Tarihi Kongresi 16-18 Haziran 2004 Sivas-Divrigi (ed. Nil Sari, G. Mesara, N. Colpan), Istanbul 2004, p. 7.
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Figure 1: Performers with sailing boats are pictured during the Opening Ceremony for the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics at the National Stadium on August 8, 2008 in Beijing, China. (Photo credit: Cameron Spencer/Getty Images). (Source ).
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Figure 8: Front cover of Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong in Islamic Thought by Michael Cook (Cambridge University Press , 2001, Hardcover, 720 pages ), a fundamental study on morals and ethics in the social history of Islam.
Figure 7: Painting atelier of the Ottoman Sultan dating from 1595-1603. The miniature shows the author, probably the court chronicler Talikizade, caligraphist and miniature painter, working on the Shahname for Mehmet III (ruled 1595-1603). Topkapi Saray Museum, Istanbul (Inv. 1609/74a) (Source).
Figure 6: Teacher and Students by Musa Roosta, from the School of Tabriz, 17th century (Source).
Figure 5: Laila and Majnun at school, a painting by Bihzad painted in 1494 in Heart, kept now in the British Museum in London. The painting illustrates a scene of a school with few boys and girls studying and learning from their teacher (Source).
Figure 4: A scene of teaching from a manuscript of the Rasa'il Ikhwan al-Safa dating from 1287 CE (Süleymaniye Library, Istanbul) (Source).
Figure 3: Front cover of The Refinement of Character, the English translation by Constantine Zurayk of Miskawayeh's Tahdhib al-akhlaq (The American University of Beirut, 1968).
Figure 2: Two recent editions of the Arabic text of Miskawayh's Tahdhib al-akhlaq: Dar al-kutub al-'ilmiya (Beirut, 1985) and Dar maktabat al-hayat (Beirut, 1989).
Figure 1: Scenes of teaching and learning in Islamic history (Source).
Figure 2: A shuttle aerial view of Palestine (Source).
Figure 3: Map showing Palestine's topography (Source).
Figure 4: View from Gaza City (Source).
Figure 5: Front cover of Life at the Crossroads: A History of Gaza by Gerald Butt (Rimal Publications, 1995).
Figure 6: The Great Mosque of Gaza, also known as the Great 'Umari Mosque (Al-Jami'a al-'Umari al-Kabir), is the largest and oldest mosque in the Gaza Strip (Source).
Figure 7: Coptic Church in Gaza City Suburbs (Source).
Figure 8: Views from Napoleon's Fort (Qasr El-Basha) located in downtown Gaza, an imposing stone building dating back to the Mamluk period. Napoleon is believed to have spent a few nights in it on his way through the town in 1799 (Source).
Figure 9: Four objects illustrating the ancient history of Gaza: a. dagger handle with incised geometric decorations, Early Bronze Age, 2700-2350 BCE (bone, length 19.5 cm); b. Egyptian scarab, Iron Age or Second Intermediate Period (enamelled steatite, length 1.4 cm, width 1 cm, thickness 0.6 cm); c. figurine: woman with drum, Iron Age, 8th-7th century BCE (ceramic, height 10 cm, width 5.2 cm, depth 5.2 cm); d. figurine: head with pointed hat (probably a horseman), Persian, 6th-5th century BCE (hand-modelled ceramic, height 3.2 cm, width 3 cm). © Antiquities Department of Gaza (Source).
Figure 10: Archaeological vestiges from Gaza ancient history: a. Aphrodite or Hecate with infant Pan, Hellenistic or Roman (marble, height 48 cm); b. bottle (alabaster), Low Period, 4th-3rd century BCE (calcite, height 14.5 cm); c. spherical phial, Roman, 1st century CE (glass, 6 x 4cm); d. Anthropomorphic jar, Roman, 1st-2nd century CE (glass, height 9cm, width 4.5 cm). © Jawdat Khoudary Collection, Gaza (Source).
Figure 11: Islamic objects from Gaza: a. Oil lamp decorated with arabesques, Umayyad, 7th-8th century (ceramic, 8.5 x 6.5 cm, height 4 cm); b. funerary stele with Arabic inscriptions, Ayyubid, 12th-13th century (white marble, height 39 cm, width 33 cm, thickness 5.5 cm); c. decorative plate with palm tree motif, Mameluk (limestone, height 33 cm, width 26 cm, thickness 10 cm); d. half dirham, Bahri Mameluks, Al-Mansour Nour al-Dîn 'Ali, Cairo, 1257-1259 (silver, 2.047 g). © Department of Antiquities, Gaza and Jawdat Khoudary Collection, Gaza (Source).
Figure 12: Front cover of the catalogue of the exhibition Gaza at the Crossroad of Civilizations: Gaza à la croisée des civilisations. 1. Contexte archéologique et historique, edited by M.-A. Haldimann et al. (Neuchâtel: Chaman Edition, 2007).
Figure 2: Front cover of Al-Duktūr Ahmad Salīm Sa‘īdān: Mukhtārāt min intājihi al-fikrī, selected and introduced by Khālid Ahmad Jarrār (Amman, 2002).
Figure 3: A page from a 13th-century Arabic recension (tahrīr) of Euclid's Elements by Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī. © Edinburgh University Library. (Source).
Figure 4: A page from Kitāb al-jabr wa l-muqābala, the first extant algebra text, written in about 825 by Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī. (Source).
Figure 5: Page from a manuscript of the Algebra (Maqālah fi al-jabr wa-al muqābalah) of ‘Umar Al-Khayyām (1048-1131). Manuscript on paper, 56 leaves, 13th century. Columbia University Libraries, RBML, Smith Oriental MS 45. (Source).
Figure 6: Page from Al-Kitāb al-Fakhrī [the Fakhri book] of the mathematician Al-Karajī (d. 1029) in which he presented geometric demonstrations of an equation. (Source).
Figure 7: Front cover of Muqaddima li-tārīkh al-fikr al-‘ilmī fī al-islām (Introduction to the history of scientific thought in Islam) by Ahmad Salīm Sa‘īdān (Kuwait, 1988, ‘Ālam al-ma‘rifa, No. 131).
Figure 8: Page from a Latin version of Euclid's Elements, Liber elementorum in artem geometria (Venice, 1482). This Latin version is thought to have been translated from Arabic by the English scholar Adelard of Bath (12th century), with a commentary by Campanus of Novara. (Source).
Figure 9: Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī's (d. 1274 CE) record of Euclid's proof of the Pythagorean Theorem. (Source).
Figure 10: Extract from an Arabic mathematical text on the concept of the decimal fractions, which is attributed to Stevin (around 1600), whilst the existence of such fractions in Arabic mathematical works is attested as early as the 10th century. (Source). See: Seeking Science from the Lands of Islam by George Saliba.