Figure 1: Portrait of Galen. Lithograph by Pierre Roche Vigneron. (Paris: Lithographie de Grégoire et Deneux, ca. 1865) (Source).
The Paracelsian Influence on Ottoman MedicineLEARN MORE
Galen's concept of medicine which dominated the medical world almost nearly for fifteen centuries began to...
Arabic botanical manuscript from the 15th century arranged in alphabetical order with illustrations of plants in vivid colours at Princeton University Library, MS 583H. © Princeton University Library, Department of Rare Books and Special Collections. See the electronic edition of the manuscript.
Al-Dinawari Advances BotanyLEARN MORE
Abu Hanifa al-Dinawari (d.895 A.D) lived in Andalusia, Muslim Spain. His work has been made known by the...
Figure 1: The Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG)
Proceedings of the Muslim Heritage Awareness Group MeetingLEARN MORE
The Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG), a network of supporters and key associates of the Foundation for...
Figure 2: Satellite global map of the Mediterranean. (Source).
Figure 3: Model of a "chebec", an Arab ship famous for its speed and maneuverability. The chebec proved so useful as a fast raider, despatch boat or even merchant ship that versions of it were adopted in other countries. (Source).
Figure 4: Front cover of European and Islamic Trade in the Early Ottoman State: The Merchants of Genoa and Turkey by Kate Fleet (Cambridge University Press, 1999).
Figure 5: View of Najjarin Funduq in Fez, Morocco. Like the Caravanserais, the Funduq is a North African term for a small, urban shop complex. A typical funduq is a square two-storey structure built around a central courtyard with shops on one floor and store rooms on the other. (Source).
Figure 6: Covered Bazaar in Istanbul. View from the Beyazit Gate, leading into the Kalpakçilar Street at its western end. Above the entrance is the royal monogram (tugra) of Abdülhamid II (1876-1909), marking the construction of the gate during the 1892-94 restoration. A short Arabic phrase included in the monogram medallion says: "God loves the one who does trade". (Source).
Figure 7: Front cover of Trade and Civilisation in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History from the Rise of Islam to 1750 by K. N. Chaudhuri (Cambridge University Press, 1985).
Figure 2: Vidinli Tawfiq Pasha's tomb stone (photo by Simo Pimtanen). Source: IMAGE The Bulletin of the International Linear Algebra Society, 19 (Summer/Fall 1997), p. 15.
Figure 3: Irish stamp on the Quaternions, issued by Ireland on May 4, 1983. (Source).
Figure 4: The original edition of Linear Algebra published in 1882.
Figure 5: Front cover of Linear Algebra published by the Istanbul Technical University in 1988.
Figure 1: Photograph of Nimrod's lens which was found in Nimrod's palace in the 19th century.
Figure 2: The oldest wall painting that shows a man wearing spectacles. Tomaso de Modena painted this painting in 1352 in the Italian city of Treviso.
Figure 3: A model of the first spectacles in the 14th century, this model is similar to what is sold by the antiques replica dealers.
Figure 5: Detail of a painting called "the Death of the Virgin" which was painted between 1400 and 1410.
Figure 6: The first printed drawing that shows medical spectacles. This was in a book called Liber Chronicarum by Schedel. This book was printed in Germany in 1493 and it is known that printing was invented in Germany forty years before the previous date.
Figure 7: Front cover of Diwan ibn Hamdis (Beirut, 1970).
Figure 8: A painting showing the Persian artist Ridhā al-'Abbasī in his old age. His student Mu'in al-Musawwer painted the paining in March 1635. The painting shows the artist wearing his spectacles and it is the oldest known painting in the Muslim world that shows spectacles. It is kept in Princeton University Library in New Jersey.
Figure 9: This painting is one of Ridhā al-'Abbasī's abum, it shows a man wearing spectacles and holding a book. This painting is dated to 1650 and it is now kept in Freer Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C.