Figure 1: A sphere circumscribed in a cylinder: the sphere has two thirds of the volume and surface area of the circumscribing cylinder.
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Figure 2: A woman with a belly wrap (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, Département des Estampes, Od. 26-26a). © Nil Sari and Ulker Erke.
Figure 3: A Turkish woman with her head wrapped to signify her illness. (Les Portraits Des Différens Habillemens Qui Sont en Usage A Constantinople Et Dans Toute La Turquie, Istanbul: Deutschen Archaologischen Institutes, Tafel 188). © Nil Sari and Ulker Erke.
Figure 4: Rustam's birth from Shahnamah Firdaws (Book of Kings of Firdaws), Türk Islam Eserleri Müzesi Kütüphanesi, 1984, fol. 48a. © Nil Sari and Ulker Erke.
Figure 5: Illustration of a Seljuk woman, painted by Nil Sari. © Nil Sari.
Figure 6: Another depiction of Rustam's birth from Shahnamah Firdaws (Book of Kings of Firdaws), Türk Islam Eserleri Müzesi Kütüphanesi, 1945, fol. 67a. © Nil Sari and Ulker Erke.
Figure 7: The Main gate of Amasya Dar Al-Shifa. The image is depicting Sharaf al-Din Sabuncuoglu, the chief physician of the Dar Al-Shifa, with his two students. © Nil Sari and Ulker Erke.
Figure 2: Painting by Nil Sari depicting the treatment of an insane patient by musical therapy. Inspired from the scene in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Painting by Gaye Özen depicting the Ottoman physician Serefeddin Sabuncuoglu during treatment with his pupils. The figure also depicts music therapy and cauterization by a physician. Picture copied by the permission of Nil Sari. Source: Amasya Selcuklu Osmanli mimarisi ve bezemeleri, edited by Nil Sari, Gülbün Mesara, and Ü. Emrah Kurt (Istanbul 2007).
Figure 3: A music therapy scenario from Edirne History of Medicine Museum.
Figure 4: A miniature picture depicting an insane patient during a musical therapy session at the Bayezid II's Hospital. Picture copied by the permission of Nil Sari and Ulker Erke from: 38th International Congress on History of Medicine, Turkish Medical History Through Miniature Pictures Exhibition. (Drawn by U. Erke, organized and edited by Nil Sari), Istanbul 2002.
Figure 2: Page from the manuscript of Ihya' 'ulum al-din (Revival of the sciences of religion), Al-Ghazali's great masterpiece preserved in the Tunisian National Library in Tunis. (Source).
Figure 3: Page from another manuscript of Ihya' 'ulum al-din. (Source).
Figure 4: A third extract from from al-Ghazali's Ihya' 'ulum al-din. Arabic manuscript on buff paper, 104ff. as numbered with 19 lines of scholar's naskh script, titles in large size, minor headings in red, very good condition, contemporary brown morocco binding with flap with tooled decoration, dates from the 14th century; from eastern Anatolia or Iran. (Source).
Figure 5: The frontispice of the manuscript of Kimia' al-sa'ada (The Alchemy of Happiness) by Abu Hamid al-Ghazali. Copy from Iran (Shiraz?) dated 1308 held in Paris. © Bibliothèque nationale de France. (Source).
Figure 6: From cover of the recent English translation of Al-Ghazali's al-Munqidh min al-Dhalal (Deliverance from Error) and other works, translated by R.J. McCarthy (Fons Vitae, 2004, 334 pp.).
Figure 7: Women are hidden behind a wall, like in a harem of a house, while an imam lectures in a mosque: Shaykh Baha'al-Din Veled preaching in Balkh Jami' al-Siyar in 1600; part of the Topkapi collection, from Bilkent University, Turkey. (Source).
Figure 8: A folio from the Akhlaq-i Nasiri, a philosophical treatise written by the famous scholar Nasir al-Din al-Tusi. (Source).
Figure 9: View of the interior of a madrasa, from a poem by Elyas Nizami (1140-1209), dated c.1550 © Bridgeman Art Library / Institute of Oriental Studies, St. Petersburg, Russia, MS D-212. (Source).
Figure 10: Entrance of Ulugh Beg madrasa in Registan Square at Samarqand, Uzbekistan. The Madrasa was built from 1417 to 1420. We do not know the name of the architect but it was a splendid building. It had two stories, with four lofty domes and a minaret at each corner. Every room was divided into two cubicles for two students. This building was so enduring that it still stands. (Source).
Figure 11: Abu Zayd preaching in the Mosque, from Maqamat al-Hariri by Abu Muhammad al-Qasim Hariri (1054-1121), illustrated by the medieval Iraqi artist Al-Wasiti. Arabic illumination, Baghdad, 1237; MS Arabe 5847 folio 18v. © Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France. (Source).