Information about the requirements and expectations of medical ethics regarding surgery during the Ottoman period is found in medical manuscripts; while the moral principles based on Islamic Canon Law (Shari'ah) and the oral tradition (the Hadith) observed in surgical operations are found in judges' registers.
Ethical Aspects of Ottoman Surgical Practice
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Figure 1. The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas. (Source)
Figure 1: Muslim expansion by the end of Umayyad rule in 750. (Source).
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