FSTC Newsletter Issue 5

A Quarterly Publication issued by the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), Manchester, UK

Issue 5 - Vol. 2 * Rabi' al-Awwal 1431 / March 2010

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Discover the Scientific and Technological Muslim Heritage in Our World

A Quarterly Publication issued by the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), Manchester, UK

Issue 5 - Vol. 2 * Rabi' al-Awwal 1431 / March 2010

Read Previous Newsletters:

Issue 1: November 2007; Issue 2: March 2008 ; Issue 3: July 2008 ; Issue 4: December 2008.

New Publications on www.MuslimHeritage.com
Browse through this rich compilation of our most recent publications on various aspects of Muslim Heritage: scientific, technological, historical and cultural.
Highly Valued Virtues of Classical Ottoman Turkish Medical Ethics: A View From Past to Future
Professor Nil Sari

The virtues such as modesty, contentedness, fidelity and hopefulness expected of a physician must also be perceived as the general criteria of ethical standards since they are based on and directed by moral values. Ottoman medical ethics was based on the trust that people had in physicians as they were believed to be virtuous. The moral behaviour expected from physicians was based on these virtues turned into regulations as guides for action. Several examples dealing with the subject are quoted from Ottoman medical manuscripts, and are also discussed in this article with respect to contemporary medical ethics .

Food as Medicine in Muslim Civilization
Professor Nil Sari

The subjects of both food and diet were very important in the medical manuscripts of the Ottoman world. A balanced diet was an important part of a healthy life. In both Ottoman cuisine and Ottoman medicine great importance was attached to the type and characteristics of foods and beverages, and which of these should be consumed, when and how by people of different constitutions. This article illustrates with numerous examples the relationship between Ottoman cuisine and medicine.

Al-Muqaddasi: The Geographer from Palestine
FSTC Research Team

It should be remembered when we talk about the different areas of knowledge in Muslim heritage—and it should be emphasised in these troubled days marked by the tragic situation in the Middle East—,that until the middle of the 20th century, Palestine was an integral part of the Muslim world. The contributions of Palestinians, men and women, to the Islamic civilization are so numerous that it is impossible to count and describe them briefly. The following article is an outline of the life and work of the Palestinian geographer Al-Muqaddasi (10th century), an early and most original geographer.

Islam's Forgotten Contributions to Medical Science
Professor Aliya Khan and Assistant Professor Ingrid Hehmeyer

The transmission of medical knowledge can be traced to some of the earliest writings in human history. A particularly fruitful period for advancement in medical science followed the rise of Islam. For the most part, Western scholarship belittles the contribution of the physicians of the Islamic world. They are usually perceived as simple purveyors of Greek science to the scholars of the Renaissance. However, as it is argued convincingly in this article, the facts show otherwise.

A Plea for the Recovery of the Forgotten History of Muslim Heritage
Ruveyda Ozturk (Book Review)

This is a review of the book published in 2007 by Michael Hamilton Morgan. Lost History. The essay attempts to uncover the Golden Age of the Muslim civilisation and recognises its contributions to the rise of the modern world. Through the evocation of the 1000 year long history and the lives of many great scientists, thinkers and artists, the author pleads for the recovery of the lost history of Muslim heritage, with the aim of showing that the alternative to the claimed "clash of civilizations" is a secret buried in the past.

Logical Necessities in Mixed Equations: 'Abd Al-Hamîd Ibn Turk and the Algebra of his Time
Professor Aydin Sayili

The famed Muslim scholar Al-Kwarazmi has long been known as the father of Algebra. In this article, Aydin Sayili presents an alternative view of the inception and development of Algebra in the works of of ‘Abd al-Hamîd Ibn Turk, a well known mathematician of the early 9th century, probably acontemporary of al-Khwarizmi. The author states an hypothesis according to which Ibn Turk may have written the first Arabic book on algebra in Islam, and not Muhammad ibn Mûsâ al-Khwârazmî.

In Memory of Aydin Sayili
FSTC Research Team

Aydin Sayilli (1913-1993) was an eminent historian of science whose pioneering work during a 50-year career uncovered many hidden treasures in the history of mathematics, astronomy and medicine, especially in the Islamic tradition. In this special section, we celebrate his memory and publish the list of his articles published on our web portal.

Ibn Sina on Education
Abd al-Rahman al Naqib

This study presents the theory of education in the philosophy of Ibn Sina, considered by ancient and modern scholars alike as the most famous of the Muslim philosophers. In his philosophical system, Ibn Sina outlined a complete theory of education and teaching. Following from his view of the human being and of the relationship between the mental faculties and the body, and from a precise conception of knowledge and ethics, Ibn Sina's educational theory deals with the aims of education, the educational stages and the teaching methods for different ages, from infants to the higher instruction of teenagers, with a focus on the teaching of girls.

Ahmad Salim Sa‘idan: A Palestinian Historian of Arabic Mathematics
Professor Mohammed Abattouy

Since the middle of the 20th century, the history of Arabic mathematics has evolved as a sub-field of the history of science and became an area of a special expertise in which the skills of confirmed mathematicians intermingled with the cultural sense of professional historians. One of the experts who emerged in this field was Ahmad Salim Sa‘idan (1914-1991), a Palestinian born in Safad, who settled in Amman for a long period of his life. This article, intended as a tribute to this son of Palestine, presents a biographical sketch and an extensive bibliography of his works on the history of mathematics and astronomy in Islamic civilization.

A Jewel of Ottoman Naval History: The Book of Kâtib Çelebi on Naval Campaigns
Ruveyda Ozturk and Dr. Salim Ayduz (Book Review)

This is a review of the book prepared by Prof. Dr. Idris Bostan for the Turkish Undersecretariat of Navigation to provide a useful and important scientific resource on the naval history of the Ottomans and the culture and technology of navigation. The book presents the grand work entitled Tuhfat al-kibâr fî asfâr al-bihâr (The Gift to the Great Ones on Naval Campaigns) written by Kâtib Çelebi in 1657 and emphasises the importance of naval Turkish activities and the Ottoman contribution to the history of navigation which has been a neglected subject until recently.

Gaza at the Crossroad of Civilisations: Two Contemporary Views
FSTC Research Team

Gaza, this tormented part of Palestine, a land of suffering and resistance, has a long history. This article presents two recent attempts to recover the ancient and medieval history of Gaza: a book by Gerald Butt (Life at the Crossroads: A History of Gaza, 1995) and an exhibition displayed in 2007 at the Musée d'art et d'histoire in Geneva: Gaza at the Crossroads of Civilizations. Aiming to illustrate the history of the Gaza region and its daily life over the centuries, the book and the exhibition emphasize the status of Gaza as a meeting point at the intersection of crossroads of cultures and civilizations.

The Ethical Theory of Education of Ahmad Miskawayh
Dr Nadia Jamal al-Din

Abu `Ali Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ya'qub Miskawayh (932-1030) was a brilliant intellectual and philosopher of 10th-century Buwayhid Baghdad. His influence on Islamic philosophy is mainly concerned with ethical issues. His book Tahdhib al-akhlaq (Ethical Instruction) is considered as the first major Islamic work on philosophical ethics. Focusing on practical ethics, conduct, and refinement of character, it contains an original theory on the education of young boys.

Medical Sciences in the Islamic Civilization: Scholars, Fields of Expertise and Institutions
FSTC Research Team

The medical sciences and related fields have enjoyed great peaks in achievement through Muslim scholarship, which raised both standards of practice and the status of the physician. This article delves into the vast history of Muslim contribution in medicine, while also shedding light on lesser known scholars.

The Simurgh: A Symbol of Holistic Medicine in the Middle Eastern Culture in History
Professor Nil Sari

This article discusses the view that the Simurgh, a mythological bird with supernatural characteristics, was also a symbol of miraculous life and treatment, as related in stories and miniature pictures. This view is described with specific examples of Turkish miniatures.

The Medical History Museum of Istanbul University: Project, Challenges and Academic Questions
Professor Nil Sari

This article is about the Medical History Museum founded recently in Istanbul as part of the Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School. The aim of this museum, founded by Professor Nil Sari in 1986, is to save old material from being lost, to preserve it for future generations and to use it as a means of education for describing the evolution of medical knowledge and technology.

Circumcision Ceremonies at the Ottoman Palace
Professor Nil Sari

Circumcision is widely practiced in all Islamic countries. Festivities pertaining to circumcision vary according to the region and civilization. In this report, circumcision festivities at the Ottoman Palace and the socioeconomic importance of the tradition are presented. The Ottoman circumcision technique is discussed, along with the miniature paintings, in manuscripts, written on the occasion of the circumcision of the sons of the Sultans. Because these festivities involved the participation of all classes of the society and all professions, they contributed to social and technical progress and led to developments in art, music, sports, and ideas.

Turkish Cuisine: A Book Review
Arif Bilgin and Özge Samanci

Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine also influenced these cuisines and that of other neighbouring countries , as well as western European. The Ottomans fused culinary traditions of their realm with influences from Middle Eastern cuisines, along with traditional Turkic elements from Central Asia such as yogurt. The following article reviews a book containing a collection of papers on the history of Turkish cuisine in the writings of some prominent historians of gastronomy, with a focus on the Ottoman palace and civil cuisine traditions and recipes.

Al-Farabi's Doctrine of Education: Between Philosophy and Sociological Theory
Professor Ammar al-Talbi

Throughout the ages, thinkers have raised the question of what the human being ought to learn in order to be in tune with his own epoch, to live intelligently in society, and to be a citizen bringing benefit both to himself and to the community; hence the importance of education. The aim of education takes precedence, only then comes the means to realize these aims. This article aims at presenting the theory of education of the Muslim philosopher and scholar Abu Nasr al-Farabi within the framework of his philosophical system, an aspect of his work not frequently touched upon by scholars.

Mont Saint-Michel or Toledo: Greek or Arabic Sources for Medieval European Culture?
Professor Charles Burnett

In a recent book, Sylvain Gouguenheim has caused a furore in claiming that European culture owes nothing to Arabic culture. This article by Professor Charles Burnett, an eminent scholar in the intellectual context of the Middle Ages and of the intricacies of Arabic-Latin transmission, explains the arguments of this debate and sheds light on salient aspects of the transmission of Islamic learning to Latin Europe. Concluding that we must acknowledge both Mont St Michel and Toledo as contributors to European culture, and warning that Gouguenheim's focus on the true roots of ‘Christian Europe' runs the danger of ethnicity, that is of replacing a racial purity of blood with a textual one, Professor Burnett shows how both Greek and Arabic sources enriched the intellectual world of the Middle Ages and in what way Islamic culture contributed to shaping Western European civilization.

The Paracelsian Influence on Ottoman Medicine in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Professor Nil Sari

Galen's concept of medicine which dominated the medical world for nearly fifteen centuries began to loose its importance in the 16th century. At that time, Paracelsus (1493-1541) introduced a new medical understanding based on chemical principles. The Paracelsian theory, which changed gradually medical practice, influenced modern Ottoman medicine to a great extent. Paracelsus, the Swiss doctor, was introduced in Ottoman medical writings as a German 'hakîm' from Austria. In this article, the multifaceted influence of his school on Turkish Ottoman medicine is described by means of various examples.

Women's Health Health during the Ottoman Reign
Professor Nil Sari

In the history of Islamic civilization, many hospitals were founded by women, either wives, daughters or mothers of sultans. All health personnel at these hospitals were male. In the Ottoman period until the 19th century, female patients were treated either at their homes or at the residences of the medical practitioners. This practice explains the variety of female practitioners of medicine both in and outside the Ottoman palace. In this article, Professor Nil Sari, provides information on the various medical practices devoted to female patients under the Ottomans.

Ottoman Music Therapy
Professor Nil Sari

Music has been used by various peoples as a mean of therapy throughout the centuries to counter all kinds of disorders. Physicians and musicians in the Ottoman civilization were aware of music therapy as the continuation of similar previous Muslim practices. There are numerous manuscripts and pamphlets on the influence of sound on man and the effect of music in healing, in both works on medicine and on music. The ideas of Al-Farabi, Al-Razi and Ibn Sina on music were followed by several Ottoman physicians. This article presents a study of music as a therapeutic means by Ottoman medical authors, and presents comprehensive information on their use of the effects of music on man's mind and body.

Al-Ghazali's Theory of Education: Its Philosophy and Its Impact
Nabil Nofal

Al-Ghazali (1058-1111) was one of the most influential Muslim thinkers. A jurist, logician, theologian, and philosopher, he was honoured in the history of Islam with title of Hujjatul-Islam (the Proof of Islam). Among his numerous contributions to the renewal of the intellectual life of the 5th Islamic century, he developed a theory of education rooted in his philosophy and aiming at improving the objectives and principles of education. Based on a reflection on the methods and knowledge of teaching, and detailing the relationships between scholars, teachers and pupils, his education concept had a notable influence inside and outside the Muslim world.

Medical Organization at the Ottoman Court
Professor Nil Sari

The Ottoman imperial Palace was quite different from Western palaces and courts:, it was not only the residence of the Ottoman Sultans and their royal household, but it also served various other functions . In addition to being the seat of the imperial authority, it also contained schools and hospitals, and was a centre of trade, arts and crafts. With about 10,000 inhabitants and 400 years of service, the Ottoman Palace was the organizational centre of the healthcare of the Empire. The following article surveys the medical organization at the Ottoman court by focussing on the Topkapi Palace, founded by Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror in 1476.

Shining light upon light
Yasmin Khan

Two science histories dissect the transfer of knowledge between the Greco–Islamic and European civilizations, and correct the impression that the flow was one way, explains Yasmin Khan in a recently published article in Nature, vol 458, 12 March 2009).

The Volume of the Sphere in Arabic Mathematics: Historical and Analytical Survey
Professor Mustafa Mawaldi

This article by focuses on the cubic measure of the volume of the sphere in Arabic mathematics. After a short presentation of the ancient Greek and Chinese legacies on this topic, the article surveys the different formulaic methods proposed by the mathematicians of the Arabic-Islamic civilization from the 9th to the 17th century to measure the volume of the sphere. The achievements of these eminent scholars are presented: Banu Musa, Al-Buzgani, Al-Karaji, Ibn Tahir al-Baghdadi, Ibn al-Haytham, Ibn al-Yasamin, Al-Khawam al-Baghdadi, Kamal al-Din al-Farisi, Jamshid al-Kashi, and Baha' al-Din al-'Amili.

Ottoman Palace Cuisine of the Classical Period
Arif Bilgin

Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine also influenced these cuisines and other neighbouring cuisines, as well as western European recipes. The Ottomans fused the various culinary traditions of their empire with influences from Middle Eastern cuisines, along with traditional Turkic elements from Central Asia such as yogurt. This article focuses on Ottoman Palace cuisine of the classical period from the 15th-17th centuries featuring certain cullinary favourites in the palace kitchen.

The Missing Link in the History of Urology: A Call for More Efforts to Bridge the Gap
Professor Rabie E. Abdel-Halim

With a few exceptions, most of the current publications on the history of urology still ignore the scientific and technological events of the more than a thousand years between the Greco-Roman times and the modern era. This has broken an important link in the continuous chain of progress and evolution between world civilizations. In this article, Professor Rabie E. Abdel-Halim restores this missing-link. He focuses the attention on the medical works of the scholars of the Islamic civilisation who lived and practiced between the 9th and the 13th centuries and whose Latinized books were available in Europe as early as the 12th century while their influence lasted until the 18th century: Ibn al-Nafis, Ibn Zuhr, Al-Razi, Ibn Al-Jazzar, Al-Zahrawi, Ibn Sina, Ibn Zuhr, Ibn Rushd, Muhadhdhab Al-Din Al-Baghdadi, Ibn Al-Baytar and Ibn El-Quff.

Pericardial Pathology 900 Years Ago: A Study and Translations from an Arabic Medical Textbook
Professor Rabie E. Abdel-Halim and Dr and Salah R. Elfaqih

This is a study and translation of the section on pericarditis in Kitab al-taysir fi al-mudawat wa-'l-tadbir (Book of Simplification Concerning Therapeutics and Diet) written by the Muslim physician Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) who lived and practiced in Al-Andalus between 1091-1162 CE. Ibn Zuhr described the serous type of pericarditis as well as the pathological findings in fibrinous pericarditis. His description of the latter may also fit with the picture of chronic fibrous pericarditis. He also described acute purulent pericarditis and involvement of the pericardium in cases of acute carditis with hectic fever. Ibn Zuhr's description of the pericardial effusion in serous pericarditis as "looking like urine" indicates that he must have seen a sample of the fluid obtained either by pericardiocentesis or during a post-mortem examination. However, his description of "solid substances accumulating on the inside of the heart's covering looking like layers upon layers of membranes" could not have been possible without post-mortem dissection.

Paediatric Urology 1000 Years Ago
Professor Rabie E. Abdel-Halim

In this study, we present a brief commentary on four books written by Muslim physicians and medical authors who lived between the ninth and the eleventh centuries, related to urology, with a special view toward aspects of paediatric urology. The books are: Al-Hawi fi al-tibb by Muhammad al-Razi, Risala fi siyasat as-sibian wa-tadbirihim by the scholar of Kairouan Ibn al-Jazzar, Kitab at-tasrif li-man 'ajiza 'an at-ta'lif by the Andalusian physician Al-Zahrawi and Al-Qanun fi al-tibb, the famous Canon of Medicine by Al-Shaykh al-Ra'is Abu 'Ali Ibn Sina.

Ibn Khaldun's Concept of Education in the ‘Muqaddima'
Abdesselam Cheddadi

At first sight, the place held by education in Ibn Khaldun's sociology appears uncertain to say the least. What today we understand by the term ‘education'—the replication of individuals and groups, firstly at the level of values and secondly at that of knowledge and know-how—is found in the Muqaddima only in a scattered and incomplete fashion. More important, Ibn Khaldun makes no use of a general concept of education. This is all the more surprising as he accustoms us elsewhere to a systematic approach to the main phenomena of life in society. However, upon closer view we discover that this ambiguity and these lacunae in fact reflect the state of the Muslim system of education, and we are forced to admit that, in this field as in many others connected with the knowledge of Muslim society, Khaldun's contribution is the most complete at our disposal.

Muhammad Al-Karaji: A Mathematician Engineer from the Early 11th Century
Professor Mohammed Abattouy

Abu Bakr Muhammed Al-Karaji was a Muslim mathematician and engineer from the late 10th century-early 11th century. Of Persian origin, he spent an important part of his scientific life in Baghdad where he composed ground breaking mathematical books. Al-Karaji is also the author of Inbat al-miyah al-khafiya (The Extraction of Hidden Waters), a technical treatise that reveals such a profound knowledge of hydrology that it should be celebrated as the oldest text of its kind in this field. The book provides an outstanding study on the different kinds of waters, the methods of finding the water level, the description of instruments for surveying, the construction of the conduits, their lining, protection against decay, and their cleaning and maintenance. In this article the scientific work of Al-Karaji is characterized, details of his biography are surveyed and a special attention is paid to expounding the contents of his treatise of hydrology.

Anaesthesia 1000 Years Ago: A Historical Investigation
Dr Adnan A. Al-Mazrooa and Professor Rabie E. Abdel-Halim

The following research article written by two eminent experts, Drs Adnan A. Al-Mazrooa and Rabie E. Abdel-Halim, is composed of two parts. The first part surveys the use of narcotics for pain relief from Antiquity up until the Renaissance; the second part is a historical investigation into the contribution of the Islamic medical tradition to the development of the methods and uses of anaesthesia. Reviewing some of the medical texts written by Muslim scholars from the 9th to the 14th century, the authors present evidence that monitoring of anaesthesia and resuscitation were practised by Muslim scientists more than 1000 years ago.

Anatomy of the Horse in the 15th Century
Rania Elsayed

The famous image we find in an Arabic manuscript depicting the "al-faras al-mastuh" (a horse lying on its back) is a clear representative of the degree of progress attained in the Islamic tradition of veterinary science in general and in hippiatry, in particular. The following article by Rania Elsayed, a scholar from Cairo, presents a reproduction of this image taken from the original manuscript and an English translation of the portions of the Arabic text, which are like captions presenting the comments of the original author on the different parts of the anatomy of the horse.

Creating a 3D Model with Motion Analysis of Taqi al-Din's Six-Cylinder Pump
Joseph Vera

Among the original machines described in the corpus of Islamic technology, the six-cylinder "monobloc" piston pump designed by Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf in the late 16th century holds a special place. Working as a suction pump, this complex machine included components that are often associated with modern technology, such as a camshaft, a cylinder block, pistons, and non-return valves. In this article, Joseph Vera, an expert in re-engineering ancient inventions, describes how he created a SolidWorks CAD model of this remarkable pump, which he completed with a motion simulation. The conclusion he drew after creating the model and the simulation is that the engineers of the Islamic tradition, represented by Taqi al-Din, had a very solid grasp of kinematics, dynamics and fluid mechanics. He notes also that Taqi al-Din's "monobloc" pump is a remarkable example of a machine using renewable energy, a topic that is currently of utmost importance.

The Horizon of Katip Celebi's Thought
Professor Bekir Karliga

The article of Professor Dr. Bekir Karliga on the horizon of Katip Çelebi's thought is a tremendous analysis of the reformist efforts deployed by the renowned 17th-century Ottoman scholar Katip Çelebi Mustafa bin Abdallah, known as Haji Khalifa. Striving to show the acute consciousness Katip Çelebi had of the intellectual stagnation that was occurring in the Islamic world, in comparison with the earlier centuries of Islamic civilisation and with the then ongoing growth of science in Europe, the author paints a faithful picture of Katip Çelebi's warning to his contemporaries. Four centuries later the alert that Katip Celebi sounded still holds good.

Celebrating an Ottoman Intellectual: 2009 Year of Kâtip Çelebi
FSTC Research Team

Kâtip Çelebi was arguably the most important Ottoman intellectual figure of the 17th century. The author of many works in the fields of bio-bibliography, geography, history and economics, he held reformist opinions and cultivated knowledge of both the classical Islamic tradition in science and culture as well as a relative familiarity with the European literature of his time. In 2009 the 400th anniversary of his birth, several meetings and conferences were organised to celebrate him as an intellectual and scholar. In the following article, we present an account of some of those events that were organised in Turkey, with a survey of Kâtip Çelebi's bio-bibliography.

Ottoman Medical Practice and Medical Science
Professor Nil Sari

The Ottomans paid great attention to medical practice and they were also greatly interested in the education and practice of physicians, surgeons and oculists. Many of these practiced their art both in and outside the palace, especially in major cities; and as members of the guilds they belonged to the Palace. The medical staff of the Palace, the medical madrasa in Istanbul and the practicing physicians in hospitals were expected to follow developments in medical sciences and even promote them. This original article by Professor Nil Sari presents a study of Ottoman medical practice and science based on new materials such as archival documents and manuscripts.

Filling the Gap in the History of Pre-Modern Industry: 1000 Years of Missing Islamic Industry
Professor Salim Al-Hassani

Most educational systems, particularly those of Western countries, teach that industry was born in Europe and that the Industrial Revolution was the mother that delivered industrial mass production. Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of FSTC and eminent expert in Islamic science and Muslim Heritage at large, challenges this view and presents an overview of the industrial and engineering processes which preceded the Industrial Revolution. Examining briefly the vast industry which stretched from China to Spain during the Muslim Civilisation (eighth-seventeenth centuries), he presents an overview of some randomly selected aspects of Muslim industrial production which highlights not only the Islamic antecedents of many processes and products widespread in our modern industrial system, but also how erroneous is the opinion that industrial production was alien to Islamic society.

Environment and the Muslim Heritage
Sir Crispin Tickell

The following short article is based on the notes for a presentation to the Muslim Heritage Awareness Group held at the Royal Society in London, 14 July 2009. The MHAG is a consulting network to the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC). The theme for this meeting was Environment and Muslim Heritage. The notes were published on Sir Crispin Tickell's website.

Rediscovering Arabic Science
Richard Covington

The magazine Saudi Aramco World published in May-June 2007 an interesting folder on Arabic and Islamic science. The folder of 20 pages consists of several articles illustrated with a rich iconography and accompanied with illuminating explanatory captions. Among this comprehensive coverage, we republish a long article on Rediscovering Arabic Science by Richard Covington. The author reviewed specialized literature and interviewed historians of Islamic science in order to gain knowledge on the topic. His output became quite comprehensive, covering all important aspects of the Islamic scientific and technological tradition. Our readers will certainly enjoy our republishing of this good piece of scholarship, bringing evidence in an easily readable style about one of the most glorious pages of Islamic civilisation and one of the richest episodes of the history of science.

The Game of Kings
Stewart Gordon

Chess probably originated in Persia or Central Asia before the seventh century and spread to India, China, the Middle East, North Africa and Europe, becoming so assimilated that the ability to play was simply part of being a civilized person. Across the miles and the centuries, the game changed, but its fascination and the mental training it offered did not. In this excellent article, published by Stewart Gordon in the July/August 2009 issue of Saudi Aramco World, the history of chess in the Islamic civilisation is narrated, surrounded by its historical and cultural context.

New Discoveries in the Islamic Complex of Mathematics, Architecture and Art
Professor Salim T. S. Al-Hassani

The complex of disciplines composed of mathematics, architecture and art in Islamic civilisation has been an important field of recent research. The scholars showed the interaction between mathematical reflexion and procedures and their implementation in designig concrete and symbolic forms in buildings, decoration and design. Furthermore, recent scholarship has pointed out the amazing progress that this marriage brought about in prefiguring outstanding mathematical results that scientists proved only in late 20th century. In this survey, Professor Salim Al-Hassani explores the facets of this exciting subject that is still full of potential discoveries. By drawing attention to the ongoing debates in scholarly circles among physicists, mathematicians and historians of science, art and architecture, he shows how the connection between theoretical and applied mathematics in the Islamic tradition was fruitful and creative.

Botany, Herbals and Healing In Islamic Science and Medicine
FSTC Research Team

The scholars of Islamic culture worked extensively in the combined fields of botany, herbals and healing. Several scholars contributed to the knowledge of plants, their diseases and the methods of growth. They classified plants into those that grow from cuttings, those that grow from seed and those that grow spontaneously. Great Muslim figures such as Al-Dinawari, Ibn Juljul and Ibn al-Baytar made great progress in the field, as this article demonstrates. Muslim botanists knew how to produce new fruits by grafting; they combined the rose bush and the almond tree to generate rare and lovely flowers. The royal botanical gardens contained an endless variety of plants, indigenous and exotic, cultivated for their brilliant foliage, their delightful fragrance, or their culinary and medicinal virtues. In particular, they dealt with plants in a variety of ways, which included their study from a philological perspective, but most importantly for their curative and healing properties.

1000 Years Amnesia: Environment Tradition in Muslim Heritage
Professor Salim T. S. Al-Hassani

In a seminar organised by the Oxford Centre of Islamic Studieson 11 January 2005, Professor Salim T S Al-Hassani brain-stormed the topic of Islam and the Environment. He presented a short overview on the environmental issuesin Islam as seen from its sources and from the history of Muslim practice over a 1000 years of planning and management of natural resources. This article expands on the earlier lectures and contributions made by Professor Al-Hassani including his participation in the conference "Islam and the Environment: Muslim 7 Year Action Plan to deal with Climate Change" held in Istanbul 6-7 July 2009.

Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil or the Triumph of the Islamic Architectural Style
The El Sayed Foundation

Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil is one of the leading voices in contemporary Islamic architecture and a practitioner known worldwide for his design of the Oxford University Centre for Islamic Studies. His use of traditional form and technique won him the 2009 Richard H. Driehaus Prize administered by the University of Notre Dame School of Architecture. The prize is awarded annually to an outstanding architect whose work applies the principles of classicism, including sensitivity to the historic continuum, the fostering of community, and consideration of the impact on the built and natural environment. Over the past four decades, El-Wakil has built mosques, public buildings and private residences throughout the Middle East, maintaining a balance between continuity and change. The following article presents coverage of the work and career of Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil and stresses the triumph of the Islamic architectural style in his designs.

History, Culture and Science in Morocco: 11th-14th Centuries
FSTC Research Team

The history of the Islamic west offers glorious pages of contribution to world history in various fields. This article presents a survey on some salient aspects of the role played by Morocco in the civilisation of Western Islam from the 11th to the 14th centuries. After a special focus on the role played by the Almoravids and the Almohads in the geopolitics of the Western Mediterranean region, the scientific scene of mathematics, applied astronomy and geography, is surveyed through the works of Ibn al-Banna, Al-Murrakushi, Al-Idrisi and Ibn Battuta.

Who Wrote the First "Useful" Archery Manual?
Malcolm Wright

In this article we will be looking at several handbooks on archery written in both the Islamic world and in the West with the aim of determining which is the oldest useful manual on archery. Our investigation is guided with criteria in function of which materials were selected, such as availability of the text, the existence of an English version (original or in translation) and its comprehensiveness in covering archery techniques. On the basis of these criteria, it turned out that the oldest useful manual on archery is a book written around 1368 by Taybugha Al-Ashrafi Al-Baklamishi Al-Yunani, The Complete Manual of Archery for Cadets, known in the scholarship as Saracen Archery.

Piri Reis: A Genius 16th-Century Ottoman Cartographer and Navigator
FSTC Research Team

Piri Reis is a well known Ottoman-Turkish admiral, geographer and cartographer from the 16th century. His famous world map compiled in 1513 and discovered in 1929 at Topkapi Palace in Istanbul is the oldest known Turkish map showing the New World, and one of the oldest maps of America still in existence. The half of the map which survives shows the western coasts of Europe and North Africa and the coast of Brazil with reasonable accuracy in addition to various Atlantic islands including the Azores and Canary Islands. This article presents the achievements of Piri Reis in cartography through the analysis of the surviving partial versions of his two world maps and his book of navigation, the Kitab-i Bahriye.

Education in Islam - The Role of the Mosque
FSTC Research Team

Islam prompted mankind to learn. Thus, from the beginning of Islamic history, the concrete symbol of Islam (the Mosque) became the centre of learning. The Arabic word for university, Jami'a, was derived from Jami' (mosque). The following article presents a short survey on the educational role that some famous mosques played in spreading learning in Islamic society.

Agriculture in Muslim civilisation : A Green Revolution in Pre-Modern Times
FSTC Research Team

The period from the 9th century to the 13th century witnessed a fundamental transformation in agriculture that can be characterized as the Islamic green revolution in pre-modern times. The economy established in the Arab and Islamic world enabled the diffusion of many crops and farming techniques as well as the adaptation of crops and techniques from and to regions beyond the Islamic world. These introductions, along with an increased mechanization of agriculture, led to major changes in economy, population distribution, vegetation cover, agricultural production and income, population levels, urban growth, the distribution of the labour force, linked industries, cooking, diet and clothing in the Islamic world. This article presents a survey on those issues and others, such as agricultural machinery, water management and farming manuals.

Astronomical Observatories in Classical Islamic Culture
FSTC Research Team

The modern astronomical observatory as a research institute (as opposed to a private observation post as was the case in ancient times) is a creation of the Islamic scientific tradition. Since the early 9th century, the astronomers of Islamic lands worked in astronomical observatories in which they performed precise observations of the skies and produced accurate astronomical tables. The Islamic observatory was a dynamic scientific specialized institution with its own scientific staff, director, astronomical program, large astronomical instruments and building. Islamic observatories were also the earliest institutions to emphasize group research and in them theoretical investigations went hand in hand with observations.

Dam Construction in the Islamic Civil Engineering
FSTC Research Team

Dams are required in most hydraulic systems, for irrigation, regulating flow of rivers and in modern times for the production of energy. In the classical Islamic world, dam construction received special attention as an integral part of large civil engineering works. Since the Umayyad Caliphate, dams were built in different Islamic regions. This article is a survey presenting the tradition of dam construction by Muslims, characterized by a rich variety of structures and forms.

Muslim Rocket Technology
Professor Mohamed Mansour

Arabic accounts report that Muslims introduced firearms into Islamic Spain, from where they passed to Italy, going from there to France, and finally Germany. Muslims also developed and refined gun powder and acquired rocket making technology. This article is a short account on the development of Muslim rocket technology, a constituent part of Islamic technology.

A Review of Early Muslim Control Engineering
Professor Mohamed Mansour

During the period of extraordinary Islamic-Arabic activity in Science and Technology (9th-13th century), contributions are recorded in the area of Automatic Control mainly in the development of water clocks using float valve regulators, different level controls using float valves or combination of siphons and the development of the On-Off control. In this short survey, Professor Dr Mohamed Mansour, former Professor of Control Engineering at ETH Zürich surveys the subject by investigating the works of Banu Musa, Al-Muradi, Ridhwan al-Sa'ati and Al-Jazari.

The Machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi Al-Din
Professor Salim T S Al-Hassani

In this pioneering survey of some of the machines of Al-Jazari and Taqi Al-Din, Professor Salim Al-Hassani uses in-depth analysis with the tools of modern technology to make them live again. Relying on the original manuscripts and applying modern engineering technology and graphic modelling with computers, we can see these machines, designed and described many centuries ago, come to life.

Merv: History, Science and Learning
FSTC Research Team

Merv, was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historic Silk Road, located near today's Mary in Turkmenistan. Several cities have existed on this strategic site, which was significant for the interchange of trade, culture and politics. In the early Islamic period, Merv was the capital of the province of Khurasan, and in the 12th century was the largest city in the world. The following article surveys some aspects of learning, science and history of Merv as an Islamic city between the 10th and the 13th century. There is special focus on the scholars and scientists of Merv, the greatest of whom was Abd Al-Rahman Al-Khazini. Besides being a gifted astronomer, he was the author of Kitab mizan al-hikma, an encyclopaedia of mechanics structured about the theory and the practice of various kinds of balances, especially the universal balance, an extremely precise scientific instrument for measuring the weights of bodies and their specific gravities.

Using an Astrolabe
Emily Winterburn

The history of the astrolabe begins more than two thousand years ago, but it is in the Islamic classical world that the astrolabe was highly developed and its uses widely multiplied. Introduced to Europe from Islamic Spain in the early 12th century, it was one of the major astronomical instruments until modern times. In this concise and beautifully illustrated article, Emily Winterburn tells a short story of the Islamic art of making astrolabes – developing the different varieties, the description of their structure and parts and their uses in social, religious and scientific functions.

A brief look at Calendars and Almanacs in the Islamic Civilization
Dr. Salim Ayduz

From the beginning of Islamic history, scholars developed the Islamic Hijri calendar as a lunar calendar designed to organize timekeeping for religious and social needs. The development of the Islamic calendar and the different tasks related to it played a leading role in the advance of Arabic astronomy as an applied and theoretical science. The following article presents a survey on the Islamic Hijri calendar and the varieties of timekeeping devices related to it. Special attention is given to the Ottoman contributions in this field.

Activities and Announcements
1. The Exhibition "1001 Inventions" Opens at the Science Museum
The Exhibition "1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World" opened at the Science Museum in London on 21st January 2010 and was greeted with great interest by the world's media, keen to cover the exhibition and comment on its various elements. The exhibition, which runs until 30 June 2010, looks at the social, scientific and technical achievements that are credited to the Muslim world, whilst celebrating the shared scientific heritage of other cultures. The exhibition is a British based project, produced in association with the Jameel Foundation.
Click here and here to read more about this ground breaking event.
2. The new 1001 Inventions website went live on 21st January 2010
The redesigned website of the 1001 Inventions Global Initiative was and launched on 21st January 2010, the day of the inauguration of the 1001 Inventions Exhibition at The Science Museum in London. In addition to its attractive look, the new design of the website offers easy navigation, more facilities, information and news.
The general menu of the website comprises the following sections, which are full of information: Home, Exhibition, Latest News, Events, Media, Gift Shop, 1001 INVENTIONS. It includes all the zones of the exhibition: Home, School, Market, Hospital, Town, World and Universe.

Other facilities provided include special pages created on social media:

Online Social Networking
The 1001 Inventions Project focuses on building social relations between people who share an interest in cultural heritage. It promotes social cohesion and cultural understanding through online social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and Muxlim.

3. MHAG Meetings

During 2009, several meetings of the Muslim Heritage Awareness Group (MHAG), a think tank and consultation network of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), were organised. A different format for the meeting was tried and found to be very successful. Three or four presentations are made by specialists, and they are followed by a short FSTC advisory meeting. This format has proved successful and has been welcomed by all participants. It is our intention to continue with this format for the foreseeable future until an improved structure is put forward.

3.1. MHAG Meeting on 24th March 2009 (Royal Society, London)
In addition to the usual business discussion, the debates were centred around the selected theme of Muslim Heritage and Social Media.
Bettany Hughes and Peter Raymond chaired the sessions. The presentations by Professor Peter Kawalek, Lee Bryant, and Professor Jim Al-Khalili on "Social Media and Muslim Heritage" were brilliant, and sparked stimulating discussions. Dr Charles Savage from Munich and Dr Munim al-Rawi from Dublin attended the meeting.
The four presentations on Social Media, were:
  • Professor Peter Kawalek of MBS, University of Manchester - "What is Social Media and Why?".
  • Lee Bryant, MD of Headshift Ltd and also a Trustee of FSTC) - "Social Media Strategies as Applied to Muslim Heritage Awareness".
  • Professor Jim al-Khalili, University of Surrey - "Science Communication and Muslim Heritage in Science".
  • Professor Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of FSTC – "1001Games: Sports in Muslim Heritage"

For more information click here; for photos of the meeting click here.

3.2. MHAG Meeting on 14th July 2009 (Royal Society, London)
Following the previous format, the first session of proceedings comprised presentations from experts on the theme selected for the meeting - Environment and Muslim Heritage. This was followed by a wide ranging discussion.
The session was chaired by Dr Anne Maria Brennan, London South Bank University. Speakers were:
  • Sir Crispin Tickell, an eminent career diplomat and expert on climate change
  • Martin Palmer, Secretary General of the Alliance of Religions and Conservation
  • Dr. David Browning: Oxford University
  • Dr. Paul Berkman, Head, Arctic Ocean Geopolitics Programme, Scott Polar Research Institute, Judge Business School, University of Cambridge and Fulbright Distinguished Scholar and Research Professor at Bren School of Environmental Science & Management, University of California.

The last hour was spent on the MHAG business of promoting Muslim heritage awareness for social cohesion and world peace and to discussing funding opportunities. Click here for more information.

3.3. MHAG Meeting on 30th September 2009 (Royal Society, London)
The theme selected was Curriculum Enrichment for the Common Era (CE4CE). The session was chaired by Ian Fenn, Principal of Burnage Media Arts College, Manchester. This meeting marked the formation the new FSTC company, Curriculum Enrichment Limited which aims to undertake a range of curriculum projects designed to develop curriculum materials for all key stages and all schools, nationally and internationally. These materials will be based upon 1001 Inventions and other related Muslim heritage issues.
The speakers were:
  • Professor Mick Waters, formerly Director of Curriculum at the QCA and now Chairman of the Curriculum Foundation and Professor of Education at Wolverhampton University: "The Big Curriculum Picture"
  • Maurice Coles, CEO, Curriculum Enrichment Ltd: "Curriculum Enrichment in the Common Era and how it relates to the work of FSTC and the 1001 Inventions project"
  • Marianne Cutler, Association of Science Education, and Jamie Byron, History adviser from Devon: "How Ideas Travel" the latest curriculum project from FSTC.

The discussion that followed included contributions from members and guests from Saudi Arabia, Turkey and the USA.
Click here to see all photos of the MHAG meeting.

4. Conferences and Lectures
4.1. 29th International conference on The History of Arabic Science, IHAS, University of Aleppo, 3-5 November 2009
The Institute for the History of Arabic Science in the University of Aleppo organised the 29th International Conference on the History of Arabic Science in Aleppo. This symposium was held in the Institute for the History of Arabic Science at the University of Aleppo from the 2nd – 5th November 2009. The conference was attended by delegates from FSTC who presented lectures on various aspects of the ongoing activities of the Foundation and the topics currently being examined by its researchers:
  • Professor Salim Al-Hassani: "Cultural Roots of Science for Cultural Cohesion"
  • Dr. Salim Ayduz: "The routes of Gunpowder to Europe".
4.2. Lecture by Dr. Salim Ayduz on "Muslim Contributions to Modern Civilisation"
On 9th February 2010, Dr. Salim Ayduz, Senior Research Fellow at FSTC and lecturer at Fatih University in Istanbul gave a lecture on "Muslim Contributions to Modern Civilisation" at Lancaster University. The conference was organised by Lancaster University Islamic Society during Islam Awareness Week.
In his lecture, Dr Ayduz outlined the achievements of Muslim scholars and focused on their significant contributions to science and technology during several centuries. During a 1000 year period, the Muslims established many scientific institutions such as observatories, libraries, madrasas, and hospitals, and contributed new scientific and technological innovations to the progress of scientific knowledge. Click here for photos.
4.3. Dana Centre Conferences
Inspired by the exhibition 1001 Inventions launched in London on 21st January 2010, the Science Museum's Dana Centre ran a programme of free adults-only evening events. Two directly related to topics in the exhibition were:
4.3.1. Lecture by Dr Subhi Al-Azzawi: Two-Houses-In-One Climatically And Environmentally: A Summer House and a Winter House, The passive solar design of indigenous courtyard houses of Baghdad
This lecture, presented on Tuesday 26th January 2010, from 19:00 to 20:30 hours by a panel of two speakers covered material in the Global "1001 Inventions: Discover the Muslim Heritage" Exhibition, Science Museum, London.
The Muslim architects and master-builders did not invent either the courtyard, or courtyard houses. These were developed in Mesopotamia over 4,500 years ago (between about 2,750 and 2500 BCE). Islam simply adopted, adapted and improved upon this form of domestic architecture because it also met its religious demands and social customs for absolute privacy for the family (especially the female inhabitants) from being overlooked by neighbours and passers-by.
However, by the middle of the 19th century, the existing, naturally conditioned, indigenous courtyard houses of Baghdad (and those of other cities in Iraq) had achieved the same thermal comfort conditions at least 75 years before American researchers achieved them but under laboratory conditions using mechanical and electrical devices to control air temperature, relative humidity and air speed. The master-builders of Baghdad were also ahead of British researchers by at least 90 years.
4.3.2. Professor Jim Al-Khalili and Dr. Rim Turkmani's talk on "The Arabic Roots of Modern Astronomy"
A lecture presented on Thursday 21st January 2010 at The Dana Centre. It is part of ‘The Big Questions', a series by Imperial College Astrophysics Department.

Arab astronomers profoundly changed our concept of the night sky, from a fearful realm with unpredictable powers over our lives, to an object of scientific curiosity. The lecture described how Arab science spearheaded this scientific revolution.

5. Announcements
Remembering the Language of History and Science: When the World Spoke Arabic
Two shows were broadcast on BBC Four in January 2009: "An Islamic History of Europe" by Rageh Omaar and "Science and Islam" by Jim Al-Khalili. As a gift for the Hijri 1430 and Gregorian 2009 New Years, and to celebrate this event, we published a short announcement of these programmes to alert our readers to the wealth of research published on www.MuslimHeritage.com on Muslim science, technology, history and culture.
It's Time to Herald the Arabic Science That Prefigured Darwin and Newton
In this era of intolerance and cultural tension, Professor Al-Khalili launched a heartfelt plea in The Guardian in January 2008 to appreciate the fertile scholarship that flowered with Islam. The tradition of Islamic science contributed greatly to the burgeoning of modern science in Western Europe by providing it with scientific texts, concepts, discoveries and inventions that paved the way for the great discoveries made during the fertile period from the 16th to the 19th centuries, from Copernicus to Darwin. It is always instructive to be reminded that science is universal and that before the brilliance of Western science, science attained high achievements in the world of Islam.
6. Events
Ancient Wisdom Exhibition at Qatar Science and Technology Park 16th March 2009 in Doha
FSTC took part in the high profile opening of the Qatar Science and Technology Park on March 16th 2009. The opening night celebrations were attended by His Highness Sheikh Hamad Bin Khalifa Al Thani and Her Highness Sheikha Mozah accompanied by over 1,400 VIPs from around the world including leading scientists, industrialists, and entrepreneurs.
Muslim Heritage Shines at Qatar through Ancient Wisdom Exhibition
The participation by the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) and Muslim Heritage Consulting (MHC) in the opening of the Qatar Science and Technology Park on 16 March 2009 took two forms: an exhibition, and a live performance entitled "Ancient Wisdom" designed to highlight the legacy of scientific achievement in Muslim Civilisation.
1001 Inventions vs. 1001 nights: Thoughts on the Renaissance of Science in the Modern Arab World
Professor Rafid Al-Khaddar, Head of Construction and Civil Engineering Department at John Moores University, Liverpool, and Key Associate and Fellow of FSTC on Environment in Muslim Heritage, presented a lecture in the symposium hosted by the Cambridge University Arab Society (CUAS) on "Science and Research in the Arab World: Obstacles, Challenges and Future Perspectives" (14th March 2009).
1001 Inventions Book Continues its Way in the Media: Two Recent Reviews
Two reviews which gave high praise to the book 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World published by FSTC in 2006 (Editor-in-Chief Salim al-Hassani) were published by Carl Kessler in his blog carlsbooks on 9th July 2009 and by Kerim Balci in the Turkish newspaper Today's Zaman on 14th June 2009. They show that the message of the book continues to filter smoothly through the media, resulting in support from various circles, and from individuals, all seeking more mutual respect and understanding.
FSTC in the British Science Festival in Surrey (10th September 2009)
FSTC participated in The British Science Festival hosted in 2009 by the University of Surrey from 5th – 10th September 2009, with events taking place in Guildford and various venues across Surrey. Organised by the British Science Association, the festival is one of Europe's largest science festivals, taking place each September. FSTC organised three sessions: Copernicus and the Astronomy of Medieval Islam, Standing on the Shoulders of Giants: Celebrating Muslim Heritage in our World and Giant Shoes to Fill.
The History of Islamic Science in the 23rd International Congress of History of Science
The International Union of History and Philosophy of Science organised the 23rd International Congress of History of Science and Technology on 28th July - 2nd August 2009 in Budapest, Hungary. The theme of the congress was "Ideas and Instruments in Social Context". Several sessions and symposia were devoted to Arabic and Islamic sciences. This note presents to our readers a short report on the congress, with a special focus on the lectures on the scientific tradition of Islamic civilisation.
"Science for All" Report Released
The British Science Association (BSA) published a new report ‘Science for All' on 9th February 2010, as part of the UK Science and Society strategy commissioned by the Department of Business Innovation and Skills (BIS). FSTC Chairman, Professor Salim Al-Hassani was a member of the consultative group which produced the report, which recommended that science-based organisations and the government need to make greater efforts to engage the public with the sciences.
7. Awards
Prof. Salim Al-Hassani received a fellowship of the British Science Association
Prof. Salim Al-Hassani has been granted a Fellowship of the British Science Association for his work to promote the scientific and technological achievements within Muslim cultures. Lord May, President of the Association, said: "Honorary Fellowship of the British Science Association is a distinguished honour, conferred to date on just 81 people. Professor Al-Hassani's interest in the history of science and technology, and specifically within Muslim cultures, has earned him a worldwide reputation. He was instrumental in the development of the ‘1001 Inventions' Exhibition and educational materials about the contributions of scientists and technologists working within Muslim cultures." Click here to see photos of the ceremony.
Dr Ian Griffin Receives a NOYCE Fellowship in 2009
The British Science Association (BSA) published a new report ‘Science for All' on 9th February 2010, as part of the UK Science and Society strategy commissioned by the Department of Business Innovation and Skills (BIS). FSTC Chairman, Professor Salim Al-Hassani was a member of the consultative group which produced the report, which recommended that science-based organisations and the government need to make greater efforts to engage the public with the sciences.
1001 Inventions Distinguished in London by the AMSS (UK)
At a meeting organised in London on 5th June, 2009, The Association of Muslim Social Scientists in the United Kingdom (AMSS - UK) honoured the Global Initiative 1001 Inventions by granting it the prestigious Building Bridges Award for 2009. The Award was presented by Dr Anas Al-Shaikh-Ali, Chair of AMSS UK, to Professor Salim Al-Hassani, who received it on behalf of 1001 Inventions - Muslim Heritage in Our World.
The Ninth Annual Ceremony Recognises the Very Best of British Muslim Achievements
The ninth Annual Ceremony for The Muslim News Awards for Excellence took place on 30th March 2009 in London. Over 800 people celebrated the ninth Annual Ceremony of The Muslim News Awards for Excellence - Britain's longest standing Muslim awards event. The coveted award ceremony recognised the very best of Muslim contribution to British society. On this occasion, Professor Mohamed El-Gomati, Deputy Chairman of the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), was awarded the Fazlur Rahman Khan Award for Excellence in Engineering, Science and Technology.
Homage to Professor Salim Al-Hassani in Al-Ithinainiya Literary Forum in Jeddah
On 2nd February 2009 Professor Salim Al-Hassani, Chairman of the Board of FSTC Trustees, was honoured by Sheikh Abdul Maqsood Khoja at the Al-Ithnainiya Literary Forum in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The keynote address was entitled "Milestone on the Road of 1001inventions". The event was attended by scholars, leading Saudi citizens, and Diplomatic missions. This award has been running for the last 25 years. Previous leading scholars honoured include: Prof. Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, Sheikh Muhammed Ali Al-Sabouni, Sheikh Abul Hasan Al-Nadawi, Sheikh Dr. Yousef Al-Qardawi, Sheikha Fatima Naseef, Sheikh Dr. Ayidh Al-Qarni, and Dr. Abel Hadi Al-Tazi. Click here for more information.

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