Al-Razi (Rhazes) (born in 864 CE) wrote over 200 scientific treatises, many of which had a major impact on European medicine. His best known manuscript is Liber Continens, a medical encyclopedia in which he described his contributions to neurology, focusing on his description of cranial and spinal cord nerves and his clinical case reports, which illustrate his use of neuroanatomy to localize lesions. In this article, Dr Nizar Souayah and Dr Jeffrey I. Greenstein focus on Al-Razi's description of the cranial and spinal nerves and his relevant clinical case reports, which illustrate his understanding of neuroanatomy and the application of his knowledge to clinical practice.
Insights into Neurologic Localization by Al-Razi (Rhazes), a Medieval Islamic Physician
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Figure 1. The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas. (Source)
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