The Ottomans conserved the fundamental features of Islamic civilisation in their scientific institutions as they also did in social and cultural areas. Three of the six Ottoman state scientific institutions dealt with here are in the area of astronomy and the other three are concerning medicine. These scientific-based institutions functioning within the state administrative organisation were established not for the purpose of governance, rather to provide state support for the pursuit of theoretical and applied scientific activities to permit the central government to monitor these.
Science and Institutions within Ottoman Administration
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Figure 1. The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas. (Source)
Figure 1: Muslim expansion by the end of Umayyad rule in 750. (Source).
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