Figure 9: Title and a manuscript page of Kitab Ma Al-Fariq: Kalamun Fi Al-Furuq Bayn Al-Amradh (A discourse on differential diagnosis) by Al-Razi (Rhazes), published by the Aleppo University Institute for Arabic Scientific Heritage, 1978.
Figure 10: Title page of the 10th volume of Kitab Al-Hawi Fi Al-Tibb (The Continens) of Al-Razi edited and published by The Osmania Oriental Bureau Publications, Hyderabad, 1961.
Figure 11: Title page of Kitab Al Taysir Fi Al-Mudawat Wa Al-Tadbir of Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), published by Darul Fikr Press, Damascus for the Arab Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1983.
Figure 12: Title page of Kitab Al-Mukhtar Fi Al-Tibb of Muhadhdhabul Deen Al-Baghdadi, edited and published by The Osmania Oriental Bureau Publications, Hyderabad, 1942.
Figure 13: The timeline shown in Figure 7 after bridging the missing link by some of the medieval Islamic scholars whose works have been studied.
Figure 16: The title page of Kitab Sharh Tashrih Al-Qanun (Commentary on [ibn Sina's] Canon) authored by Ibn Al-Nafis, edited by Salman Qattaya and published by The Egyptian Manuscript Editing Bureau, Cairo, 1988.
Figure 17: The drawing of the cross section of the brain and the eyes made by the 13th century Khalifa ibn Abi Al Mahasin Al Halaby (from Aleppo) in his book Al Kafi Fi Al-Kuhl (The Book of Sufficient Knowledge in ophthalmology). From: The Arabian Ophthalmologists, compiled from original texts by J. Hirchberg, J. Lippert and E. Mittwoch, translated into English by F. C. Bildi et al., edited by Z. Wafai and published by King Abdel-Aziz City for Science and Technology, Riyadh, 1993.
Table 2: List of some areas where the medieval Islamic scholars challenged the anatomy of Galen and proved its fallacy.
Figure 18: Two latin editions of the Colliget (Al-Kulliyyat fi al-tibb) of Ibn Rushd and the Taysir of Ibn Zuhr; the first ever example of joint authorship of a medical textbook. Printed in Venice in 1542 and 1553. Courtesy of Biblioteca Histórica de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
Figure 19: Two Latin editions of Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine printed in Venice (1520) and in Rome (1593). Courtesy of Biblioteca Histórica de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
Figure 20: Another Latin edition of Ibn Sina's Canon of Medicine printed in Louvain in 1658. Courtesy of the Koraes collection, Koraes Central Library of Chios.
Figure 21: Timeline (AD) of some of medieval Islamic scholars in relation to the end of the eleventh century (green = before; red = after).
[Proceedings of the conference 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World organised by FSTC, London, 25-26 May 2010]. Aiming at restoring historical continuity to the currently available knowledge on medicine in the Middle Ages, the article summarizes some results from Prof. Abdel-Halim's extensive primary-source studies of the original Arabic works of ten medieval Islamic medical scholars who lived and practiced between the 9th and 13th centuries and whose works represented original contributions to the progress of anatomy, physiology, clinical medicine and surgery. The article also highlights the importance of continuing research in this field, for the reason that the investigation about the transmission and translation movements that occurred during the Middle Ages are bound to emphasize the universality of knowledge and unity of mankind. Such an assumption will certainly boost cultural inter-appreciation around the world and help to strengthen mutual understandings between the West and the East and, thus, nurture the interaction between different faiths and various civilisations.