# Scholars A-Z

Born on 1320
Died on 1380

Khalīlī was an astronomer associated with the Umayyad Mosque in the center of Damascus. A colleague of the astronomer Ibn al‐Shāṭir, he was also a muwaqqit – i. e., an astronomer concerned withʿilm al‐mīqāt, the science of timekeeping by the Sun and stars and regulating the astronomically defined ti...

Without a doubt, the greatest of all scholars to come from Merv was al-Khazini. Abderahman al-Khazini flourished ca. 1115-ca 1130 at Merv. He was a slave boy to whom his master gave the best education in mathematical and philosophical subjects. He became a mathematical practitioner under the patrona...

Born on 940
Died on 1000

Abû Mahmûd Hâmîd ibn al Khidr al Khujandi (10th century) constructed an instrument, made of an arc of a sity degree of meridian, and called Suds al Fakhri, for the measurement of the obliquity of the ecliptic. It has a radius of about twenty metres, and surpassed all previous ones in size. This arc...

Born on 780
Died on 850

A Muslim mathematician, astronomer, and geographer, who wrote on Hindu-Arabic numerals and was among the first to use zero as a place holder in positional base notation. The word algorithm derives from his name. His algebra treatise Hisab al-jabr w'al-muqabala gives us the word algebra and can be co...