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Scott tells that
`The graceful courtesy and deference to the sex, which were the indispensable attributes of every gallant cavalier, in short, the very genius of chivalry, originated among the Spanish Mohammedans. The women of Christian Europe—except in countries influenced by Muslim culture—from the tenth to the fifteenth century received no such social consideration and enjoyed no such educational advantages as did their infidel sisters of the Peninsula.'
Indeed, it is in Seville, that there came into prominence a number of scholarly women. Valada, a princess of the Almohades, was renowned for her knowledge of poetry and rhetoric; her conversation was remarkable for its depth and brilliancy; and, in the academic contests the capital which attracted the learned and the eloquent from every quarter of the Peninsula, she never failed, whether in prose or in poetical composition, to distance all competitors.  Algasama and Safia, both of Seville, were also distinguished for poetical and oratorical genius; the latter was unsurpassed for the beauty and perfection of her calligraphy; the splendid illuminations of her manuscripts were the despair of most accomplished artists of the age. The literary attainments of Miriam, the gifted daughter of A1-Faisull, were famous throughout the Peninsula, the caustic wit and satire of her epigrams were said to have been unrivalled.
These women were part of large circle of scholars who thrived in their multitude in the city during the Almoravid and Almohad times above all.
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Khair ibn Umar ibn Khalifa Al-Ishbili is a Hispano- Muslim scholar, born in Seville in 1108-1109, studied in Seville and Cordova, and died in Cordova in 1179. He compiled a bibliography (Fihrist) containing more than 1400 titles of books composed by Spanish Muslims on every subject, a bibliography which is very precious, as other standard bibliographies of Arabic writings, compiled by Easterners (notably that of Hadji Khalifa) do not give sufficient importance to the Spanish writings. This Fihrist was edited by Francisco Codera y Zaidin and Julian Ribera y Tarrago late in the 19th century, vol 10 of which contains the index and a Latin introduction.
The science of Botany which thrived under the Berber Dynasty of Banu Dhi Nun of Toledo, and their illustrious ruler, Al-Mamun, moved south to Seville following the fall of Toledo to the Christians in 1085. Running south amongst the surviving scholars was Ibn Bassal (1085 C.E.), whose works in Toledo have been examined under that entry. Ibn Bassal joined the court of Al-Mutamid for whom he created a new royal garden. In Seville Ibn Bassal met with Ali Ibn al-Lukuh another scholar of Toledo, who himself was a student and disciple of another famed scholar of Toledo, Ibn Wafid, and also encountered Mohammed B. Hadjadj Al-Ishbilli, also a writer on agronomy. It is in Seville, that Ibn Bassal came into contact with the other great botanist of Grenada, al-Tignari, who during his visit to Seville was able to benefit greatly from Ibn Bassal's expertise in the field. It is also in Seville that Ibn Bassal and Ibn Lukuh were the masters of the mysterious `anonymous botanist of Seville,' the author of the `Umdat al-Tabib fi ma'arifat al-nabat li kuli labib,' a botanical dictionary, which Colin considers far superior to even the master in the genre, that is Ibn al-Baytar of Malaga. It seems that this writer could have been Ibn Abdun (not the author of the treatise on Hisba, who lived a century or so earlier; See below), who was at some point part of the diplomatic mission to the Almohad court in Marrakech in 1147.
Another botanist is Abu'l Khair (early 12th century), who is the author of a book on farming: Kitab al-Filaha. In this treatise, Abu'l Khair proposes four procedures to collect rain water, and other artificially obtained waters. Abu'l Khair stresses the need for the recuperation of rain water for the reproduction of olive trees by cuttings: before filling the holes, by throwing in small stones at the bottom of the plant so as to preserve moisture, then filling the hole.
Abu'l Khair also informs on the process of sugar making as conveyed to us by Ibn Al-Awwam:
`Here is the process to make sugar: we cut the sugar cane when it has reached its point of maturity…. Then we cut it into small pieces, which are then well crushed inside presses (Ma'asara), or in similar apparatuses. Then is boiled the extract, then allowed to rest fro a period of time, then it is sifted through it, before it is cooked again until only a quarter of the initial quantity is left. Then this concentrate is poured into moulds of clay of a special shape, which are then stored in the shade until they harden or crystallise; then the sugar is taken out to dry still in the shade and then is removed. The left over from the sugar cane is not wasted but is instead fed to horses who love it, and which helps them gain in strength and energy.'
Abu Zakariya Yahya ibn Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Al-Awwam Al-Ishbili is a Hispano-Muslim agriculturist who flourished at Seville about the end of the twelfth century. He wrote a treatise on agriculture, Kitab al-filaha, which is the most important Muslim work as well as the most important mediaeval one on the subject. The treatise divides into two main parts, the first dealing with soils, fertilizers, water, gardens, trees, fruits and their preservation, etc, whilst the second deals with ploughing, the choice of seeds, the seasons and their tasks, grain farming, leguminous plants, small allotments, aromatic plants and industrial plants, harvesting, farming engineering, livestock breeding, poultry, and the treatise ends with a section devoted to veterinary subjects. The treatise is divided into thirty-four chapters, of which the first thirty deal with agriculture proper, and the last four with cattle and poultry raising and apiculture. Ibn Al-Awwam's treatise covers 585 plants, and explains the cultivation of more than fifty different fruit trees, besides containing striking observations on the different kinds of soil and manure and their respective properties, on various methods of grafting, on sympathies and antipathies between plants, etc. Ibn Al-Awwam also studies gardening, water variety, irrigation, animal husbandry and bee keeping, the symptoms of many diseases of trees and vines