Latinized Names of Muslim Scholars
|Latinized Name||Arabic Name||Biographical Sketch|
|Abalphatus, Asphahanensis||Abū ‘l-Fath Mahmūd Ibn Muhammad al-Isfahānī||A 10th century mathematician from Iran. He flourished around 982 CE in Isfahan. Editor of, and commentator on, some books of Apollonius' Conics. His work on the Conics was known in Europe.|
|Abenguefith||Ibn Wāfid, Abū 'l-Mutarrif ‘Abd al-Rahmān al-Lakhmī||A physician from Toledo, he lived from 1008 to 1074. He is the author of a treatise on ophalmology and of another on simple medical substances. The latter was famous in Europe under the title Liber Abenguefith Philosophi de virtutibus medicinarum et ciborum, after its Latin translation by Gherard of Cremone.|
|Abenezra||Abraham ben Meir ibn Ezra Ibn Azra||Jewish Andalusian astronomer, born in Tudela, Emirate of Saragossa in 1092/93. He was a poet, grammarian, traveller, philosopher, and astronomer. He left his native land of Andalus before 1140 and travelled throughout Europe. His travels took him to North Africa, Egypt, Palestine, Italy, France, and England, until his death on January 1167.|
Taking Aben-Ezra's work as a whole, it consists rather in popularizing Andalusian knowledge in different fields on Latin and Saxon soil. Several of his scientific works were translated into Latin: one by Henry Bate in 1281 and 1292, another by Peter de Abano in 1293 and a third by Arnoul de Quinquempoix sometime before 1326. A translation was made independently from the Hebrew original into Catalan, by Martin of Osca (or Huesca), Aragon. From this Catalan version, The Book of Nativities was translated into Latin by Louis de Angulo in 1448.
|Abubacer (and Abentophal, Abentofail)||Abū Bakr Muhammad Ibn Tufayl al-Qaysī||Andalusian philosopher, physician and court official (ca 1100-1185 CE). Born in Andalus, he died in Morocco where he was appointed a vizier and physician for Abu Ya'qub Yusuf, the Almohad Caliph, to whom he recommended Ibn Rushd as his own successor when he retired in 1182. Ibn Tufayl is famous for Hay Ibn Yaqzan (Alive son of Awake), a philosophical romance and allegorical tale. The story of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan is similar to the later story of Mowgli in Rudyard Kipling's The Jungle Book in that a baby is abandoned in a deserted tropical island where he is taken care of and fed by a mother wolf.|
A Latin translation of the work, entitled Philosophus autodidactus, first appeared in 1671, prepared by Edward Pococke. The first English translation was published in 1708. But Ibn Tufayl's intellectual legacy was known in Europe since the Middle Ages.
See the Arabic text of Hayy bin Yaqzan from Wikisource; English translation: The History of Hayy Ibn Yaqzan, translated from the Arabic by Simon Ockley (London: Chapman and Hall, 1929).
|Abulfeda||Abū 'l-Fidā, Ismā'il Ibn Kathīr ‘Imād al-Dīn||A Syrian historian and scholar (1273-1331). Among his works: Al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya (The Beginning and the End), Taqwim al-buldan (A Sketch of the countries), Tarikh Abu-'l-Fida, his chief historical work, also called Mukhtassar tarikh al-bashar (The Concise History of Humanity or An Abridgment of the History at the Human Race), in the form of annals extending from the creation of the world to the 1300s. Abu 'l- Fida was also well learned in many fields such as botany and materia medica. He wrote a work in many volumes on medicine titled Kunash, and a book on the balance.|
His books of history (Tarikh) and geography (Taqwim) were known in the West. The Taqwim Al-Buldan knew many translations into Latin, either partial or complete. One of them is: Abulfedae Tabula Syriae: cum excerpto geographico ex Ibn ol Wardii Geographia et historia naturali / Arabice nunc primum edidit, Latine vertit, notis explanavit Io. Bernhardus Koehler; accessere Io. Iacobi Reiskii ... (Lipsiae, 1766).
|Albategnius (and Albategni or Albatenius)||Al-Battānī, Abū ‘Abdullāh Muhammad Ibn Jābir Ibn Sinān al-Harrānī as-Sābī||Astronomer and mathematician, born in Harran (now in Turkey) around 853 CE. He died in 929 at Qasr al-Jiss, near Samarra in Iraq. Among his achievements: the determination of the solar year as being 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds; the production of a number of trigonometrical relationships; he also used al-Marwazi's idea of tangents to develop equations for calculating tangents and cotangents, compiling tables of them. His most important work is his Zīj, or set of astronomical tables, known as al-Zīj al-Sābī with 57 chapters, which by way of Latin translation as De Motu Stellarum by Plato of Tivoli in 1116 (printed 1537 by Melanchthon, annotated by Regiomontanus), had great influence on European astronomy. Copernicus mentioned his indebtedness to Al-Battani and quoted him in the De Revolutionibus (1543).|
|Alboacen||Abū Al-Hasan Alī Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habīb al-Māwardī||A scholar in political science, sociology, jurisprudence, and ethics. He was born in 972 CE in Basra. A jurist of the Shafi'i school, he also made contributions to Qur'anic interpretations, philology and literature. He served as a judge at several Iraqi districts, including Baghdad, and as an ambassador of the Abbasid caliph to several Muslim states. Al-Mawardi's works on Islamic governance are recognized as classics in the field. His contribution in political science and sociology comprises a number of monumental books, the most famous of which is Al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyya w'al-Wilayat al-Diniyya (The Ordinances of Government), Qanun al-Wazarah (Laws regarding the Ministers), Kitab Nasihat al-Mulk (The Book of Sincere Advice to Rulers), Kitab Aadab al-Dunya w'al-Din (The Ethics of Religion and of this World).|
|Albohali||Abū ‘Alī al-Khayyât, Yahyā Ibn Ghālib||Early astronomer-astrologer (c.770-c.835), author of works translated from Arabic into Latin by Plato Tiburnitus into Latin, such as Albohali arabis astrologi antiqvissimi, ac clarissimi de Ivdiciis natiuitatu, Liber Unus (Nurnberg, 1549). This book was edited recently: The Judgments of Nativities by Yahya Ibn Ghalib Khayyat (Tempe, Arizona: the American Federation of Astrologers, 1988).|
|Albucasis||Abū 'l-Qāsim Khalaf Ibn al-‘Abbās al-Zahrāwī||An Andalusian physician and surgeon (936 - 1013). He is considered as the father of modern surgery, and as Islam's greatest surgeon, whose comprehensive medical texts, combining Islamic medicine and ancient influences, shaped both Islamic and European surgical procedures up until the Renaissance. His greatest contribution to history is the Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume enc
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