Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: A Special Section
Recently published articles on Taqi al-Din on www.MuslimHeritage.com:
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf, nicknamed Taqi al-Din, was born in Damascus in 932 H/1525-26. He died in Istanbul in 993 H/1585. A scientist expert in different fields, he made valuable contributions in mathematics, astronomy, optics, and mechanics. He was the founder and the director of the Istanbul Observatory; as such and as an astronomer, he invented and improved various astronomical instruments, among which an automatic-mechanical clock that he used in astronomical observations. He designed original and sophisticated machines and devices and advanced the arithmetic of decimal fractions and used them in the calculation of astronomical tables.
The particular significance of Taqi al-Din in the tradition of Islamic science is that he personifies the best of Islamic science in the 16th century. With his work, Islamic science was still original and creative. Being highly original, his work can be compared with Tycho Brahe and with Italian engineers, whom he preceded in the design of original machines and instruments. However, he was one of the last original and prolific scientists to practice and write science in Arabic following the centuries-old Islamic scientific tradition. After him, the rate of originality will decrease, and at the same time modern European science will experience a real and exponential take-off with Kepler, Galileo, and later with Newton.
The folder we dedicate to Taqi al-Din's memory and achievements contains the following articles:
1. First a A Bio-Bibliographical Essay by Salim Ayduz composed of a biographical sketch and a comprehensive compilation listing most of Taqi al-Din's writings from manuscript sources.
2. A Bibliography on Taqi Al-Din in which are presented most of the recent publications issued in the history of science in the last decades on Taqi al-Din ibn Ma'ruf. The list encloses articles and books on Taqi al-Din and his works in astronomy, mathematics, mechanics, engineering and optics.
3. The article by Ihsan Fazlioglu Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf: Survey on his Works and Scientific Method is composed of two intermingled layers: a bio-bibliographical essay on the life and works of Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf, which gives the occasion to present the contents of his books and thus characterizes his scientific method in comparison with his predecessors.
Taqi al-Din's mechanics is covered in two long and detailed articles which are of tremendous value by themselves in the sense that they describe the virtual reconstruction of two important machines, an astronomical clock and the six cylinder pump:
4. Salim Al-Hassani, The Astronomical Clock of Taqi Al-Din: Virtual Reconstruction: this article presents for the first time a virtual reconstruction of the astronomical clock type through geometrical drawing and 3D animation described in Taqi al-Din's treatise Al-Kawakib al-durriyya fi wadh' al-bankamat al-dawriyya;
5. Another article by Salim Al-Hassani and Mohammed A. Al-Lawati is dedicated to The Six-Cylinder Water Pump of Taqi al-Din: Its Mathematics, Operation and Virtual Design. It deals with the mathematics and virtual reconstruction of a sophisticated water raising pump presented by Taqi al-Din in his book Al-Turuq al-saniya fi al-'alat al-ruhaniya.
6. Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf 's Work on Extracting the Cord 2o and Sin 1o by Sevim Tekeli deals with an aspect of the work of Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf in trigonometry. Approaching Taqi al-Din's work through modern methods of notation, his mathematical method in extracting the cord 2° and Sin 1° is fully disclosed.
7. Taqi al-Din ibn Ma‘ruf and the Science of Optics: The Nature of Light and the Mechanism of Vision by Hüseyin Gazi Topdemir surveys the contents of the book Kitab Nur hadaqat al-ibsar wa-nur haqiqat al-anzar. It is the only existing article in English on Taqi al-Din's optics.
8. The Instruments of Istanbul Observatory by Sevim Tekeli describes the instruments built by Taqi al-Din and his team at the Istanbul observatory and points out in particular the close resemblances between them and those used in Western Europe by Tycho Brahe, at the same time, in his observatory at Uraniborg Castle.
Other articles related to Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf on www.MuslimHeritage.com:
Lecture: Great Men and Women of Science in Muslim Heritage by: FSTC Ltd
Evening lecture with Professor Salim Al-Hassani. Tuesday 21 November 2006, 6pm-8pm
Roy. Soc. Arts Lecture Manchester by: FSTC Limited
The RSA is delighted to announce a lecture in Manchester by Professor Salim Al-Hassani which will showcase some of the fascinating inventions of this period and explore their relevance to today's world and society.
Lecture: Islam, Modernity and the Enlightenment: A New Perspective by: FSTC Limited
The Council for Arab-British Understanding, in collaboration with the Foundation for Science, Civilisation and Technology, hosts: ‘Islam, Modernity and the Enlightenment: A New Perspective' by Samer Akkach. Thursday 3rd May 2007, 6:30pm
Video Stream of George Saliba’s Lecture by: FSTC Limited
In May 2007, George Saliba, Professor of Arabic and Islamic Science at Columbia University, gave a lecture on "Arabic Islamic Science and the Making of the Renaissance" at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London. The video streaming of this important lecture can be viewed here online.
Credo of an Eminent Scholar: Professor Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu's Lecture in Padua by: FSTC Limited
This article reproduces the lecture pronounced by Professor Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, the Secretary General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, on the occasion of the presentation to him of the title of Doctorate honoris causa
by the University of Padua in Italy on 11 December 2006.
Lecture at Liverpool Athenaeum by: FSTC Limited
Professor Al-Hassani gave a lecture to the Liverpool Athenaeum
at their prestigious library on 28 February 2008. Here His Honour Judge John Roberts, current President of the club, is seen presenting Professor Al-Hassani with a copy of Liverpool 800, a new book on the history of Liverpool in celebration of the city's 800th anniversary and receiving a copy of the 1001i book for the Athenaeum library. The Liverpool Athenaeum has a distinguished membership of proprietors drawn from every walk of life across the city of Liverpool and the North West of England.
Presentation on The Muslims' Great Contributions during the Golden Age of the Islamic Civilization by: FSTC Limited
Prof. Salim Al Hassani, A Muslim Scholar and the chief editor of "1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World"
will be delivers his presentation for the second time on "The Muslims' Great Contributions during the Golden Age of the Islamic Civilization" Wednesday, 5th of March 2008 @ 12:00pm
. Prince Bandar Ben Sultan Auditorium.
Taqi al Din Ibn Ma’ruf 's Work on Extracting the Cord 2o and Sin 1o by: FSTC Limited
This article by Professor Sevim Tekeli, a leading historian of science in the Ottoman period, deals with an aspect of the work of Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma'ruf in trigonometry, a mathematical discipline which studies the relationships between the sides and the angles of triangles and the trigonometric functions which describe those relationships. Approaching Taqi al-Din's work through modern methods of notation, his mathematical method in extracting the cord 2o
and Sin 1o
is fully disclosed. The author shows the originality of Ibn Ma'ruf's discovery and states how it constituted a progress with regard to his predecessors, in Greek and Islamic mathematics.
Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: A Bio-Bibliographical Essay by: FSTC Limited
This article is a bio-bibliographical essay on the life and works of Taqī al-Dīn Ibn Ma'ruf, a scholar of 16th-century Istanbul, one of the most prolific and original scientists of the Ottoman period of Islamic science. After a biographical sketch, a comprehensive compilation lists most of his writings from manuscript sources.
Taqi al-Din ibn Ma‘ruf and the Science of Optics: The Nature of Light and the Mechanism of Vision by: FSTC Limited
In this article, some aspects of Kitab Nūr hadaqat al-ibsār wa-nūr haqīqat al-anzār
(Book of the Light of the Pupil of Vision and the Light of the Truth of the Sights) of the renowned Ottoman astronomer Taqī al-Dīn ibn Ma‘rūf, who lived in Istanbul in the 16th century, is discussed in detail in order to show the high level and quality of the scientific research carried out during the reign of the Ottoman Empire.
Bibliography on Taqi Al-Din by: Prof. Mohammed Abattouy
Taqi al-Din Ibn Ma’ruf: Survey on his Works and Scientific Method by: FSTC Limited
Being in form a bio-bibliographical essay on the life and works of Taqī al-Dīn Ibn Ma'rūf, a well known scholar of 16th-century Istanbul, this article presents the contents of his books and compares his scientific method with his predecessors. This investigation leads in turn to a description of the originality of his achievement and shows the novel aspects of his work.
Muslim Heritage: A Scholarly Perspective by: FSTC Limited
FSTC Research Associate Kaleem Hussain delivered on 17th
April 2008 a lecture on ‘Muslim Heritage: A Scholarly Perspective' at the Markfield Institute of Higher Education in Leicester. Aiming to explore the education of children in that area, focusing particularly on Muslim children, the conference presented the projects of FSTC and some milestones in contemporary scholarship in Muslim Heritage. We reproduce in this article a brief summary of the themes touched on during the lecture.
Science and Rationalism in 9th Century Baghdad by: FSTC Limited
Text of the Lecture of Professor Jim Al-Khalili in the Conference Muslim Heritage in our World: Social Cohesion
marking the 1001 Inventions
Exhibition at the House of Parliament, 15th of October 2008, Church House, London, UK.