Geography

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The European Jerusalem: Sarajevo, where Muslim heritage flourished in Central Europe
During Ottoman rule, Sarajevo was heralded as the “European Jerusalem”, as its invaluable contributions to civil engineering, industry, trade and architecture attracted people from various ethnic and...
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Cairo: A Millennial
In this article, published originally in Saudi Aramco World in 1969, focus is laid on the history of Cairo, the capital city of Egypt, founded in 969 by General Gawhar, in the name of the Fatimid...
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Piri Reis: A Genius 16th-Century Ottoman Cartographer and Navigator
Piri Reis is a well known Ottoman-Turkish admiral, geographer and cartographer from the 16th century. His famous world map compiled in 1513 and discovered in 1929 at Topkapi Palace in Istanbul is the...
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Al-Muqaddasi and Human Geography: An Early Contribution to Social Sciences
Recent scholarly interest in the genesis of social sciences in Islamic culture is a noteworthy shift. Until recent times, the development of these fields was credited exclusively to the modern...
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Gaza at the Crossroad of Civilisations: Two Contemporary Views
Gaza, this tormented part of Palestine, land of suffering and resistance, is also a land of long history. This article presents two recent attempts to recover the ancient and medieval history of Gaza...
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The Islamic Heritage in China: A General Survey
In this article, Anthony Garnaut, an expert of the Muslim Chinese culture, focuses on the Islamic heritage in China and its relevance to understanding both the evolution of Chinese history and...
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Figure 1. Areas of Yāqūt's geographical travels and descriptions.
Yaqut al-Hamawi
Yâqût al-Hamawî was a Syrian biographer and geographer known for his encyclopaedia writings of the Muslim...
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Figure 1: An artistic impression of al-Bīrūnī (Image from www.muslimheritage.com).
Al-Biruni
Al-Biruni was one of the most learned of Muslim scholars and scientists. His interests were very wide as he...
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Figure 1. Ibn Battuta as imagined by a present day artist. Muslim Heritage Consulting ©
Ibn Battuta
The Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta is known as the greatest traveller of premodern times. He lived in the 8th...
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Figure 1. Chios island (in Aegean Sea) map, Kitab-i Bahriye, Suleymaniye Library, Ayasofya, 2612.
Mapping and Picturing: Maps as Records of History
A study of historical maps and sea charts indicates that cartographers have often considered map making as an...
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Scandinavia and Ibn Fadlan
This short article provides brief accounts of Ibn Fadlan's observation on Scandinavia and a people he calls...
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