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ANNOUNCEMENT: New Annotated Reference (Text Only) Edition of 1001 Inventions Book
New Annotated Reference (Text Only) Edition of 1001 Inventions: The Enduring Legacy of Muslim Civilisation
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A Tale of Two Civilisations: The Viking and the Muslim Civilisation
Dating back to March 2015, news regarding the discovery of a ring found on a Viking woman in an ancient burial ground with the inscription 'For/To Allah' erupted in mainstream media. The mystery...
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Water Sterilization Technology in Muslim Civilisation
It is known that contaminated water contains many bacteria and harmful viruses that cause many diseases such as typhoid, cholera, dysentery, meningitis and poliomyelitis, etc. Water-related diseases...
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Berlin Science Week to Feature Public Event on Ibn Al-Haytham
1001 Inventions is organising “Ibn Al Haytham: The Man Who Discovered How We See” educational experience for the first time in Germany as an anchor event of the Berlin Science Week.
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Avicenna’s Medical Thinking in Colonial Mexico
New Spain was a viceroyalty of Spain between 1521 and 1821. In these three centuries, the practice and the teaching of medicine had a great influence from Arabian medicine, and in this way, the...
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From Petra back to Makka – From “Pibla” back to Qibla
A critique of Dan Gibson, Early Islamic Qiblas: A Survey of mosques built between 1AH/622 C.E. and 263 AH/876 C.E. (with maps, charts and photographs), 296 pp., Vancouver BC: Independent Scholars...
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Star-finders Astrolabes
Oliver Hoare once said "The ability of Islamic civilization to perfect what it inherited, and to endow what it made with beauty, is nowhere better expressed than in the astrolabe". Over a...
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Michigan Science Center to host 1001 Inventions
This fall, the Michigan Science Center (MiSci) is celebrating untold stories of innovation – 1,000 years of innovation to be exact!...
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The Back-Road Historic Mosques of China
In a country known for large numbers, it was a modest, round number that grabbed our attention: 100. That is the approximate number of mosques built before 1700 that are estimated to remain...
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Florida Museum of Science & History Celebrates Inventions from Muslim Civilisation
On August 5 2017, the Museum of Science & History (MOSH) in Jacksonville, Florida organised an educational day in partnership with 1001 Inventions to celebrate the scientific and cultural...
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Scholarship, Science & Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa: Pre-Islamic to Islamic Era
On Friday 11 August 2017, the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation UK, held two consecutive talks on the notion of 'Scholarship, Science & Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa'. The...
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Rethinking and Rebuilding Social Cohesion: Engaging Young Syrian Refugees Project
On Saturday 1st July 2017, the Foundation for Science, Technology, Civilisation UK (FSTC UK), Rethink Rebuild Society (RR)  and AMAL  partnered up to deliver the second part of the “...
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RECENT ARTICLES

Technology in sub-Saharan Cultures
Genetic and paleontological findings have concluded that Africa is the birthplace of the entire human race....
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al-Jahiz's Book of Animals: The transcendent value of disgust
Jeannie Miller, an assistant professor in the department of near & Middle Eastern civilizations, is...
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A Tale of Two Civilisations: The Viking and the Muslim Civilisation
Dating back to March 2015, news regarding the discovery of a ring found on a Viking woman in an ancient...
LEARN MORE

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Scholarship, Science & Technology in Sub-Saharan Africa: Pre-Islamic to Islamic Era
On Friday 11 August 2017, the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation UK, held two consecutive...
LEARN MORE

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Figure 2. Ibn al-Haytham's Camera Obscura. The concept of the Camera Obscuraas perceived a thousand years ago by Ibn al-Haytham, who coined the Arabic term. Note the formation of the inverted image through a ray diagram. Illustration of theCamera Obscura in 1001 Inventions: Muslim Heritage in Our World (chief editor Salim Al-Hassani), Manchester: FSTC, 2008, 2nd Edition, ISBN: 9780955242618, p. 29. See also The Year of Ibn al-Haytham (published 15/02/2011) and Ahmed H. Zewail,Micrographia of the twenty-first century: from Camera Obscura to 4D microscopy(The Royal Society, 2010).
Figure 3. 4D electron imaging in real, Fourier and energy spaces. The conceptual design of Caltech’s UEM-2 is presented on the right; a single-electron trajectory is depicted within the UEM. The atomic-scale (femtosecond) temporal resolution characteristic of the apparatus allows for the visualization of dynamical processes in real time. Shown on the left are typical UEM frames of real-space images and diffraction patterns, together with three-dimensional maps of femtosecond-resolved electron-energy-loss spectra (FEELS). For a recent review, seeShorokhov & Zewail (2009).
Figure 4. Microscopy time line, from camera obscura to three-dimensional electron microscopes. 4D ultrafast electron microscopy and diffraction were developed a decade ago. The top inset shows the frontispiece to Hooke’s (1665) Micrographia published by the Royal Society of London. In the frontispiece to Hevelius’s Selenographia (bottom inset), Ibn al-Haytham representsRatione (the use of reason) with his geometrical proof and Galileo represents Sensu (the use of the senses) with his telescope. The two scientists hold the book’s title page between them, suggesting a harmony between the methods (Sabra 2003; Steffens 2006; Zewail & Thomas 2009).

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