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Newsletter 11: January Issue 2015
In the first days of the New Year, FSTC team is pleased to present to our wide community Issue 10 of this periodic publication. We list in this new release detailed coverage on FSTC recent activities...
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Newsletter 10: January Issue 2013
In the first days of the New Year, FSTC team is pleased to present to our wide community Issue 10 of this periodic publication. We list in this new release detailed coverage on FSTC recent activities...
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Figure 1: A line sketch depicting Al-Biruni in a Turkish stamp. The stamp reads: "Ebû Reyhan El-Bîrûnî 973-1059".
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Figure 2: Al-Fārābi depicted on a postage stamp of Kazakhstan.
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Figure 3: Manuscript of Maqalah fi al-jabr wa-al-muqabalah by 'Umar al-Khayyam, hand written manuscript on paper, 56 leaves, copied in Lahore in the 13th century. Property of Columbia University Library, RBML, Smith Oriental, MS 45. (Source).
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Figure 4: A scene from the city of Gilan.
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Figure 5: The planetarium of al-Khawarizmi Astronomy Complex in Melaka, Malaysia (Source), and in the left top corner the depiction of al-Khawarizmi on a Soviet stamp.
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Figure 6: A stamp issued by Iran in 1980, depicting al-Farabi, al-Biruni, and Avicenna. (Source).
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Figure 9
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Figure 10
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Figure 11
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Figure 12
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Figure 13
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Figure 18
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Figure 19
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Figure 20
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Figure 21
Figure 1: View of primary and secondary rainbows (Source).
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Figure 2: The explanation of the rainbow in Aristotle (S = Sun, O = Observer, C = Cloud).
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Figure 3: The formation of the primary rainbow.
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Figure 4: The formation of the secondary rainbow.
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Figure 5: Refraction of the ray from a transparent sphere.
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Figure 6: Multi-reflection of a ray.
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Figure 7: Multi-refraction of a ray.
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Figure 8: The paths of rays in a transparent sphere.
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Figure 9: Double refraction of a ray in a transparent sphere.
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Figure 10: Double refraction and one reflection of a ray.
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Figure 11: Double refraction and double reflection of a ray.

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