Figure 1. The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Modern consolidation, created from the 70 double-page spreads of the original atlas. (Source)
Figure 2: Painting of the battleground of Timur and the Egyptian King, conserved in Golestan Palace, Tehran, by Kamaleddin Behzad (dated around 1515). © Tehran Museum of contemporary art. (Source).
Figure 3: Map of the Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in 1683 (See: list of territories). (Source). Self drawn by Atilim Gunes Baydin, mainly based on Robert Mantran (ed.), Histoire de l'Empire Ottoman, Paris: Fayard (1989).
Figure 4: The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II enters Constantinople by Fausto Zonaro, (1854-1929). The Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453 cemented the status of the Ottoman Empire as the preeminent power in south-eastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean. (Source).