Figure 1: Illuminated page from the Kitab Ihya' ‘Ulum al-Din (Revival of the Religious Sciences), Al-Ghazali's great masterpiece. Manuscript preserved in Tunisia's National Library, Tunis. (Source).,
Figure 2: Last page of Al-Ghazali's autobiography in MS Istanbul, Shehid Ali Pasha 1712, dated 509 H/1115-16 CE. (Source).,
Figure 3: Front cover of The Alchemy of Happiness, by Mohammed Al-Ghazzali, the Mohammedan Philosopher, translated Henry A. Homes (Albany, N.Y.: Munsell, 1873). Transactions of the Albany Institute, vol. VIII. Digital version. See another digital publication edition: The Alchemy of Happiness by Al-Ghazzali, translated by Claud Field, 1909.,
Figure 4: A leaf from Ihya' 'Ulum al-Din. Manuscript in naskh script from Eastern Anatolia or Iran, circa 14th century. Part of the celebrated treatise on the Muslim faith and Sufi life, Arabic manuscript on buff paper, 104 folios in naskh script, titles in large size, minor headings in red, very good condition. (Source).,
Figure 5: Page from the manuscript of the Ihya', vol. 3: Kitab al-Raja' wa-‘l-Khawf (The Book of Fear and Hope). MS in Arabic on vellum, Morocco, 1350, 17 folios in Maghribi script of Fasi style, with royal Marinid waqf inscription. (Source).,
Figure 6: Front cover of Al-Ghazali's book Letter to a Disciple, translated by Tobias Mayer. The Islamic Texts Society, 2005.,
Figure 7: Manuscript of The Alchemy of Happiness, Farsi copy held in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France in Paris. From Iran, 1308. (Source).,
Figure 8: Page from the Munqidh manuscript by Al-Ghazali (Suleymaniye Library: Sehid Ali Pasa No. 1712/2). (Source).
Figure 1: Location map showing Kerala in India.,
Figure 2: Statue of Aryabhata on the grounds of Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, India. As there is no known information regarding his appearance, any image of Aryabhata originates from an artist's conception. (Source).,
Figure 3: View of Jantar Mantar Observatory in New Delhi, India, completed in 1734. (Source).,
Figure 4: 2 pages from Rigveda manuscript of mathematics in Sanskrit on paper, India, early 19th century, 4 vols., 795 folios. The manuscript is in Devanagari script with deletions in yellow, Vedic accents, corrections etc in red. (Source).,
Figure 5a-b: Palm leaf manuscript from Kerala. (Source)., ,
Figure 6: Old photo of the Madayi Mosque in the Malabar Coast, Kerala State, in the period 1919-1929. (Source).
Figure 1: Ibn al-Haytham (here Alhasen) sharing with Galileo the honour of holding up the title page of Hevelius' Selenographia, pub¬lished in 1647. Note the image of the brain on the plinth below Ibn al-Haytham. Image courtesy of the library of the Royal Society.,
Figure 2: The title of the paper written in Latin by Edmund Halley on the observations of Al-Battani published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1693. Image courtesy of the library of the Royal Society.,
Figure 3: Title page of Halley's translation of Apollonius's work from Arabic. Image courtesy of the library of the Royal Society.,
Figure 4: Title page of the Arabic Taqwim al-Buldan of Abu al-Fida which was printed in Paris in 1829. Image courtesy of the library of the Royal Society.,
Figure 5: Title page of Richard Mead's book in which he incorporated the work of Al-Razi and commented on it. Note Al-Razi's name on the title page. Image courtesy of the library of the Royal Society.,
Figure 6: The title page of Thomas Hyde's publication of the star catalogue of Ulugh Beg and that of Al-Tizini. Image courtesy of the library of the Royal Society.