Ibn Durayd, in full Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn al-Ḥasan al-Azdī ibn Durayd (born 837/838, Basra, Iraq—died Aug. 13, 933, Baghdad), Arab philologist who wrote a large Arabic dictionary, Jamharat al-lughah (“Collection of Language”).
Ibn Durayd’s dictionary was written in Fārs and was inspired in part by the earlier dictionary Kitāb al-ʿayn of the grammarian al-Khalīl. Words are listed alphabetically in Jamharat al-lughah, but all permutations of the root letters are given together. Among Ibn Durayd’s other works are Kitāb al-ishtiqāq (“Book of Derivation”), on the etymology of Arab names, and al-Malāḥin (“Ambiguities of Speech”), a book of ambivalent words for the use of persons forced to swear. Ibn Durayd was also a gifted poet.
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