A Quarterly Publication issued by the Foundation for Science, Technology and Civilisation (FSTC), Manchester, UK
Discover the Scientific and Technological Muslim Heritage in Our World
Issue 2 - Vol. 1 * Rabi I 1429 / March 2008
|New Publications on MuslimHeritage.com|
|Al-Jazari's Castle Water Clock: Analysis of its Components and Functioning|
The first machine described by al-Jazari in his famous treatise of mechanics Al-Jami‘ bayn al-‘ilm wa 'l-‘amal al-nafi‘ fi sina‘at al-hiyal (A Compendium on the Theory and Useful Practice of the Mechanical Arts) is a monumental water clock known as the castle clock. This article presents a careful and precise analysis of its components and mechanical functioning, with the help of several design methods: line drawing, but also computer assisted reconstruction.
|Overview on al-Jazari and his Mechanical Devices |
Professor Yavuz Unat, a known historian of science from Ankara University, draws a general survey on al-Jazari and his treatise. He describes some of his machines and points out the numerous technological innovations brought about by al-Jazari in their design and physical principles.
|An 800 Years Old Ancestor: Today's Science of Robotics and al-Jazari|
Introducing al-Jazari's ancestry to modern cybernetics and robotics science, Prof. Toygar Akman narrates in this testimony article his own discovery of the work of the great 13th century Muslim scholar. He shows further how al-Jazari's mechanical achievements laid the ground to a proto science of robotics avant la lettre.
|Arabic Eclipse Records Bring Light to Scientific Analysis of the Earth's Rotation|
A total eclipse of the Moon occurs during the night of Wednesday, February 20/21, 2008. The entire event is visible from large parts of our globe. On this occasion, we attract the attention of our readers to the historic contribution of the astronomers that worked in the Muslim lands in the study of such spectacular astronomical events.
|800 Years Later: In Memory of Al-Jazari, A Genius Mechanical Engineer|
Al-Jazari (1136-1206) was an important Arab Muslim scholar. He was an inventor and mechanical engineer who gained fame and glory with his famous book of mechanics Al-Jami ` bayn al-`ilm wa `l-`amal al-nafi `fi sina `at al-hiyal (A Compendium on the Theory and Useful Practice of the Mechanical Arts), the most significant treatise of the Islamic tradition of mechanical engineering and a ground breaking work in the history of technology. Some 800 years after his death, modern history of science is appealed to give him credit and celebrate his work.
|Nasuh Al-Matrakî, A Noteworthy Ottoman Artist-Mathematician of the Sixteenth Century|
Matrakci Nasuh was a famous Ottoman polymath, writer and scholar who produced important books in several fields. He made contributions in the fields of mathematics, geography, history and calligraphy. He also invented a military lawn game called "Matrak", a kind of animation of battle.
|Credo of an Eminent Scholar: Professor Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu's Lecture in Padua|
This article reproduces the lecture pronounced by Professor Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu, the Secretary General of the Organization of the Islamic Conference, on the occasion of the presentation to him of the title of Doctorate honoris causa by the University of Padua in Italy on 11 December 2006.
|Tentative Global Timeline of Contacts between the World of Islam and Western Europe: 7th -20th Centuries|
The following timeline presents a survey of Muslim presence in Europe from the 7th century CE until the 20th century. It lists the various and different contacts that shaped the relations of Muslims with Western Europe.
|Survey on the Development of the Historical Method among Muslim Scholars until Ibn Khaldun|
This article surveys the development of historical methodology in the works of some influent Muslim historians, observing their trends and scrutinizing everything related to narration of incidents, political, social, and sectarian currents.
|Mulla Nasruddin Khodja, a Major Character of Muslim Satiric Literature|
Nasr al-Din Khodja is a wise man famous throughout the Muslim and some parts of the non-Muslim world since the 16th century. His jokes were narrated for centuries between people for different purposes. Some as jokes, some to tell as stories, full of meaning and wisdom.
|The Seljuk Face of Anatolia: Aspects of the Social and Intellectual History of Seljuk Architecture|
This article deals with the Seljuk Anatolian architecture and art. The art of the Seljuk sultans showed much interest in public buildings such as caravanserais, schools and hospitals. This architecture was based on strong religious and cultural sources of inspiration that nourished the works of architects, artists and artisans.
|Science under Islam: A Reflection on Past Brilliancy and Future Revival|
This is a review of a book by Sayyed Misbah Deen, Emeritus Professor of Computer Science (Keele University), describing the adventure of science and technology in Islam from four standpoints: the rise of science and technology in the Islamic Golden Age.
|Health in the Ottoman Empire: A Collective Achievement in the History of Ottoman Medicine|
This is a review of Health in the Ottomans (Osmanlilarda Saglik), a two-volume book concerning Ottoman medical history. The book is a brilliant achievement aiming at the reconstruction of the main aspects of the developments and accomplishments of medical sciences under the Ottomans.
|The Armillary Sphere: A Concentrate of Knowledge in Islamic Astronomy|
The armillary sphere is an ancient astronomical instrument reproducing a model of the celestial sphere. In its simplest form, it was known since the antiquity. The article presents the principle of its drawing and use, as displayed in Muslim heritage, and hence shows the concentrate of scientific knowledge that lies behind the apparent simplicity of the instrument.
|Arabic Star Names: A Treasure of Knowledge Shared by the World|
Many of the prominent stars known today are of Arabic origin as they bear names given to them during the golden age of Islamic astronomy. A major contribution in this field is that of al-Sufi (10th century). Presenting shortly the historical context of the old nomenclature of Arabic star names, the article contains also a list of 165 stars known by Arabic names.
|Seeking Seamless Scientific Wonders: Review of Emilie Savage-Smith's Work|
Najma Kazi reviews some salient aspects of Emilie Savage-Smith's work. Emilie Savage-Smith, who is a Professor of History of Science at the Oriental Institute (Oxford University), is an internationally recognised authority on the History of Islamic Science, and is a key figure within a small band of historians that are spearheading the discovery of Muslim Heritage and its impact on civilisation.
|"Three Times Greater than Venus": Ibn Ridhwan's Observation of Supernova 1006 |
1001 years ago, an extraordinary astronomical event occurred in the sky: the most intense supernova ever witnessed and recorded by human beings appeared in the Earth's sky in the year 1006 CE. The blast was seen from Europe to China. One of the witnesses who saw it was a young man from Cairo, Ali ibn Ridwan, then 18 years old. Later on, he produced one of the most significant records about this astronomical event. Nowadays, astronomers scrutinize his record to collect information about the 1006 supernova.
|A Treasure of World Heritage: Islamic Manuscripts in the Kandilli Observatory|
This is a review of a book bringing to light a collection of about 1300 Islamic scientific manuscripts on astronomy and various scientific topics in three languages (Turkish, Arabic and Persian). These manuscripts are held in the Library of Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute at Bogaziçi University in Istanbul.